Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about theKathmandu Valley for Temples and Pilgrimages. Answer: Introduction The Kathmandu valley in Nepal remains one of the most significant tourist attraction sites in Asia. The valley contains nearly a hundred and twenty important monuments and it is also the home of seven world heritage sites. This has made it a very prominent tourist attraction center in Asia which has also been increased by the presence of temples, pilgrimages and religious monuments. The unique architectural designs and street cultural festivals also contribute greatly to the tourist activities in the valley. The valley remains the most developed and populous place in Nepal dating this to the ancient civilization that took place in the valley. This paper discusses ethical principles of corporate social responsibility activities of the Kathmandu valley tourist attraction site in Nepal. The valley was however ruined by the 2015 Kathmandu earthquake that severely destroyed most of the property in the valley. However, the valley still remains an important tourist attraction centre due to the value of tradition, religion and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world heritage sites. These include the Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Changu Narayan temple, Boudhanath Stupa and Pashupatinath temple. Other major tourist sites and cultural sites include the Aditnath temple and Kailashnath Mahedev Statue. The administrative function of the town and the population factor has led to the town having many businesses and commercial activities which thrive from the many tourists that flock the valley occasionally (Adhikari, et al 2016). Corporate Social Responsibilities of the People Hadders, H. (2017) describes Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as the proceeding with duty by organizations to act morally and add to financial advancement while enhancing the personal satisfaction of society on the loose. It is about endeavors choosing to go past least legitimate necessities and commitments coming from aggregate assertions keeping in mind the end goal to address societal requirements. There are two methods for CSR associations: budgetary organizations in which cash streams straightforwardly, and non-money related organizations in which specialized information sources or items are conveyed. By demonstrating their corporate social obligation, privately owned businesses in a joint effort with improvement performers, (for example, NGOs) can add to making the water and sanitation division more manageable. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) does not have one specific definition. Some characterize it as working in a way that meets or surpasses the moral, lawful, business and open desires that society has of business; though other characterizes it as working together in a moral way that regards individuals, society and the environment. According to Tripathi, (2016) CSR is the idea that an undertaking is responsible for its effect on every pertinent partner. It is the proceeding with responsibility by the business to carry on reasonably and capable and add to monetary improvement while enhancing the personal satisfaction of the work constrain and their families and in addition the neighborhood group and society everywhere. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an enterprise's drives to evaluate and assume liability for the organization's consequences for natural and social prosperity. The term for the most part applies to endeavors that go past what might be required by controllers or natural assurance gatherings. CSR may likewise be alluded to as "corporate citizenship" and can include bringing about here and now costs that don't give a prompt money related advantage to the organization, yet rather advance positive social and ecological change. Gautam, and Chamlagain, (2016) in the sense that Kathmandu is a highly populous valley, corporate social responsibilities are highly evident in the various firms and businesses that operate around the region. The most corporate social responsibilities in the region have been greatly influenced in the various tragedies and occurrences that have taken place in the region. These include the earthquake of 2015 and also the ecological environmental changes that often bring calamity on the people occasionally. Some of the major CSR activities that the businesses can engage in would be like promoting public interests and community growth and interaction. This can be observed by when businesses adopt various strategies to take control of the environment related calamities and take the responsibility of helping the community to advance beyond such challenges as climate change and social cohesion. Voluntary activity of businesses and firms is one of the major corporate social responsibilities that businesses should embrace. Ethical Issues Due to the presence of so many tourist attractions in Kathmandu and administrative functions, there has been so much population in the valley. The large numbers has then prompted so many social ethical issues that has continually affected the people of Kathmandu. Some of these ethical issues have sprang of from the ecological conditions of the area such as the high attitude and climatic influence from the Everest, the history of civilizations and the effect of the many tourists and religion activities among other factors. Anderson, et al (2016) addressesvoyeurism as one of the major ethical issues that need to be addressed in the valley. Some may discover dull tourism all things considered constitutes voyeurism to some degree and that this makes it sketchy on a fundamental level yet in the real sense that is a horribly over-summed up and eventually wrong method for taking a gander at it. Going by remembrances devoted to some unfortunate occasion has constantly shaped some portion of tourism, as has looking at the regularly emotional impacts of catastrophic events, for example, volcanic activities. In any case, if it's about goggling at the hopelessness of others that is the after effect of exceptionally later or as yet continuous debacles, then the part of voyeurism does undoubtedly go to the frontal area. It's frequently an issue of how much time has slipped by since a given fiasco. It's to be sure morally questionable to go to spots experiencing progressing calamity just to gaze. The time that necessities to go before dim tourism to as of late influenced zones can be legitimized is a troublesome issue in itself, in any case. For instance, when individuals go to Kathmandu to glance around and take photos of the demolition, this brought about some shock. In short, it was viewed as dishonest voyeurism. The same occurred after the grievous seismic tremors in southern China a couple of years prior. Consequently, holding up too long to past unfortunate occurrences can be an issue as well. It can really be advantageous to a stricken range to get tourism up and running again as fast as could reasonably be expected and hence recover budgetary misfortunes through tourism. After the earthquake, travelers were really urged to return ahead of schedule for this situation. At times, be that as it may, it might remain an issue and one needs to judge precisely. Regularly enough, however, it isn't a lot of an issue by any means, esp. on the off chance that it's about catastrophe, debacles, and so forth that happened route back in time, i.e. where the association with the at this very moment is absolutely verifiable. That is the situation for an expansive extent of authority remembrance destinations. These are along these lines for the most part unproblematic from a moral perspective. Shrestha, and Baniya, (2016) then concludes that it cant be totally denied that there is no less than a slight hint of something looking like voyeurism required in dark tourism. There's a sure "excite" to go and see such locales. Despite the fact that a few people have noted on events that they all of a sudden got themselves feeling somewhat like spectators stretching out their neck at the site of a street mishap or something. Such ungainly emotions shouldn't be exaggerated. Another major ethical issue in the valley is security. To chance an individuals particular wellbeing and security, or even life, is "peril tourism" and NOT dull tourism. This site does NOT advance the previous, just the last mentioned. Furthermore, clearly enough it's not just about personal safety where individuals ought not to endanger their lives but its the collective security of all individuals. In any case, that applies for the most part, not particularly to black tourism. Security of both tourists and the residents of the valley has been a serious challenge in the thriving of businesses in the valley. Some of the very important considerations in the setting up of any business is the question of security. Lack of employment in the valley has caused people to engage in criminal activities. This has then caused tourists to fear visiting the valley in fear that they might lose their personal belongings or their lives due to criminal activities in the region, Bhakta Bhandari, (2014) argues that in the fear of being attacked by criminals, tourists may fear to travel freely in the region which brings a reduction in the number of customers in the businesses that operate in the valley. This results in crumbling down of the business activities that take place in the valley due to little profits. Reduction in the number of tourists will mean a reduction in the number of customers in the business premises which causes them to close down. Insecurity also affects the businesses in various ways in that people do not set up businesses any longer in fear that the businesses might be robbed and they then encounter great losses. Security then remains a very ethical concern to both the residents and tourists of the valley as business and commercial activities form the major background of the economy of Kathmandu valley. In the sense that the valley is a very populous valley, there are several social ethical concerns such as refuse disposal which often accumulates to toxic levels. This postulates a similar challenge as that caused in Europe due to industrialization. Such problem associated with refuse disposal has also caused concern to businesses as it has influenced the business operations taking place. A perfect example from the Kathmandu valley is the disposal of plastics which has posed a serious challenge; the government efforts to dispose these plastics have always more than often proved futile. Shrestha, B. K. (2017) argues that ethical issues refer to acting moral codes of conduct. Acting in a moral way encompasses recognizing "right" and "wrong" and after that choosing the "right" decision. It is anything but difficult to distinguish dishonest business hones. The organization ought to not unlawfully utilize copyrighted materials and in addition forms. They ought not to be occupied with pay off and exactions. Despite the fact that it is not generally simple to create comparative rigid meanings of better moral practice, a firm should mandatorily make an aggressive return for its shareholders and treat its workers well. A firm likewise has more extensive duties and commitments. It ought to limit any mischief to the condition that it causes and work in ways with the goal that it doesn't harm the groups in which it is being worked. It is known as corporate social Responsibility (CRS). There are huge numbers of ethical issues that the business firms are confronting. Some of these include; Work. Due to the national and global relocation the organizations are confronting the distinctive issues. There is an absence of very much characterized work administration strategy. Able abilities to oversee and address the issues of human asset in the moral foundation are inadequate in Nepal. There is as yet the act of kid work in many firms in spite of the fact that the legislature has made the law against youngster work. Firms ought to build up the insignificant worthy benchmarks that safe the fundamental rights and also the respect of representatives and review alternate subcontractors and auxiliaries all the time (Sanjel, et al 2016). The condition of business enterprises and firms is also a critical ethical concern. There is the absence of data on the arrangement on condition safeguarding and insurance. The high augmentation in urbanization in modern territories is prompting constrained removal. Absence of readiness/information and development to present the origination of administrations and items which are eco-accommodating and achieve new reusing plans is the real difficulties in Nepal. Another ethical concern that needs to be addressed is defilement. It is a noteworthy issue profoundly established in every last division and at all levels. Responsibility to engage interest for fixes from government authorities amid business exchanges is common. In all regulatory procedure, there is an abnormal state of defilement which prompts high cost of working together whose outcomes in low item quality and guidelines. Absence of disciplinary and an exemption activity for untrustworthy practices and requests is an extraordinary moral issue that is being confronted by the organizations. Tamang, (2015) explains that a few business analysts advocate that the pattern of giving rewards may be the value that ought to be necessarily paid to do a more noteworthy great. These financial analysts consider that in a country where previous political structures constrain or modify the workings of the market instrument, carrying, side installments to government civil servants and debasement as dark marketeering to "accelerate" affirmation for business speculations may really fortify welfare. According to Banskota, (2015) human rights are also another ethical concern that needs to be addressed in the businesses and firms in Kathmandu. Primary human rights underestimated in the today's produced world, for example, the right to speak freely, opportunity of affiliation, flexibility of development , flexibility of get together, et cetera, are in no way, shape or form divinely/all around acknowledged. Essential/fundamental human rights are as yet not regarded in numerous nations. Large number rights are not all around acknowledged, for example, flexibility of affiliation, the right to speak freely, opportunity of get together et cetera. There are several other ethical principles such as assessment and money related responsibility, free rivalry and market assurance among others. The government of Nepal and other nongovernmental organizations has used several mechanisms to try and address some of these ethical concerns. Some of these solutions to these ethical concerns include; waste management, favorable legislation and change in ideological systems. Solutions to the Ethical Concerns in Kathmandu Valley Amiya, et al (2014) holds that proper disposal of refuse in social places has been one of the major concerns in resolving the social ethical concerns in the businesses. Proper discharge of plastics and refuse is important in cleanliness of the environment to ensure safe working conditions. personal responsibility is one of the major concerns in realizing this. However, the government of Nepal in conjunction with world regulatory bodies has been in the forefront of ensuring clean and safe environments. The United Nations Convention for Human Rights in conjunction with the government of Nepal has put forward various measures to address the issue of human rights. This has focused on the promotion and enhancement of the principles of liberal democracy, protection of the individual in trade and efforts of promoting a free market which has improved the state of businesses operating in the valley. The people have also been sensitized on the importance of understanding their rights and freedoms and pushing for realization which is an aspect of self determination. Thomson, (2014) explains that CSR has also seen various measures that have provided solutions to the ethical concerns. An imperative part of CSR is the manner by which endeavors communicate with their inner and outside partners; representatives, clients, group, NGOs, open experts, and so on. It is about ventures choosing to go past least legitimate prerequisites and commitments originating from aggregate assertions keeping in mind the end goal to address societal necessities Ecological Protection is one of the major concerns of CSR in solving ethical concerns. The concentrate in this segment is on finding supportable answers for regular assets use keeping in mind the end goal to lessen organization's effect on the earth. In the course of recent years, ecological duty has extended to include generously more than consistence with all pertinent government controls or even a couple of activities, for example, reusing or vitality productivity. With respect to and sanitation, an organization can demonstrate its corporate social duty regarding case by building enhanced and creative wastewater treatment plants or feasible sanitation and also applying water collecting. Koirala, (2014) explains that in matters regarding to human rights, business practices can significantly influence the rights and respect of representatives and groups. The fundamental concentrate is on creating work environments free from segregation where imagination and learning can prosper tolerable codes of expert lead and where an appropriate adjust can be kept up amongst work and different parts of our lives. In sanitation, an organization can demonstrate its corporate social duty by giving spotless and safe sanitation offices and sufficient water supply to its representatives keeping in mind the end goal to guarantee their human rights. Promotion of the well being of individuals has been of great significance in resolving the ethical issues. The work environment is currently perceived as a critical setting for wellbeing advancement. An organization can advance satisfactory wellbeing standard by giving a solid and safe work put for its representatives and put resources into wellbeing advancement in different activities executed with improvement offices. As to and sanitation, an organization can demonstrate its social corporate duty by adding to wellbeing advancement extends in association with improvement performing artists, for example, NGOs. These ventures may bring issues to light about the relationship of sanitation, cleanliness and general wellbeing. Finally, human disaster management is another important milestone that the corporate social responsibility has addressed in resolving ethical concerns in Kathmandu. Organizations, in participation with open division, common society and global associations have assumed an imperative part in supporting helpful alleviation operations. As to and water, an organization can demonstrate its social corporate obligation by supporting individuals in a fiasco territories with clean drinking water or sanitation offices (Knoop, 2014). In conclusion, it is important to point that CSR policies and functions of the people and businesses in Kathmandu greatly ensure that people adhere to existing laws, conventions and practices. These are mainly government legislations, religious and communal belief systems that form the culture of the people living in the valley. International norms also form the basis on which peoples morals are ascertained and tested. Businesses should however assume the major role of corporate social responsibility since as Durkheim suggests, there can never be order in the society if people do not take up certain roles in the society. References Adhikari, S., Paudel, K., Aro, A. R., Adhikari, T. B., Adhikari, B., Mishra, S. R. (2016). 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