Saturday, August 31, 2019

Key Practices of Performance Management Essay

The requirement for effective performance management: The performance management acts as a key measure to ensure that the goals and objectives are being consistently met that too in an effective and efficient manner. The management of performance focuses on the performance of the overall enterprise, all departments, employees and even the products or services. However, it does not just stop here as with performance management companies can align their resources, systems and employees which will help them attain their objectives and priorities. The goals of performance management programs: Only when the employee and the system align with one another can they ensure the delivery of strategic and operational goals. Some skeptics argue that there exists a relation between the use of performance management programs or software with improved organizational results. When considering the public sector, the performance managers changes from negative to positive which suggests that the difference in the characteristics of the system, and the different context that they are implemented play an important role in success or failure of the performance management. Sometimes using an integrated software rather than a spreadsheet based recording system will help in delivering a significant return of investments through the range of direct and indirect sales benefits. Measuring the operational efficiency will help in unlocking the latent potential of the employees that work. The benefits will include everything from the direct financial gain to a motivated workforce to the improved management. For the financial gains, it will grow sales, stop the overrunning of projects, and align the enterprise in direct manner to the CEO’s objectives. For the motivated workforce, it simply means optimization of incentive plans that defines the objective even for the over achievement and not for just the business as usual. Lastly, in the improved management control, the employees become more flexible and open to the management needs. They also display data relationships and helps audit to comply with the legislative requirement. Lastly, the process enables careful documentation and scenario planning. Types of performance management implementation Erica Olsen noted that in many businesses, even the ones with well made plans actually failed to implement appropriate strategy. For most, the issue lay in the ineffective management of the employees even with a business plan in place. Of course, they have conducted the necessary survey and collected the data, and also ensured management retreats to decide their organizational direction, but even with an expensive software in place, their plan can fail. Most of the time, their performance management and appraisals overlap and three types have been so far identified: Long cycle performance management: Usually done on a annual or a biannual or quarterly basis, from implementing this management, this the area that has received the most attention. These techniques predate the use of computers and therefore do not need any expensive software. Short cycle management performance: This overlaps with the principles of the agile software development which is mainly done on a week, monthly or bi-weekly basis. Usually this kind is industry specific. Reference: http://classof1.com/homework-help/human-resource-management-homework-help

Friday, August 30, 2019

Sports Nutrition Market in India

1. Introduction This chapter deals with overview, objectives, methodology, sampling plan and limitations of the study. 1. . Overview of the study Business analysis of whey in India is not restricted to its well defined boundaries. Because of the nature of the product and its current status, it is traded globally and very small quantity is traded within the country. The study is intended to study the effect of global changes on trade. Similarly the emphasis is laid on the application of whey as a product for mass market. The idea is to understand capabilities required for the same and see if any company can fit into that specification. 2. . Objective of the study The study has been undertaken to meet following objectives: 1) To understand the structure, Conduct and performance of whey business in India. 2) To understand the evolution of Whey business in next five years. 3) To identify key opportunities for GCMMF in whey business. 4) To propose market entry strategy for GCMMF to enter into whey business 3. . Methodology followed The study has used personal visits to whey processing plants and modern format stores, questionnaire survey of gym visitors, unstructured interviews with trainers, dieticians, and unstructured interview on telephone with employees of these plants, use of checklist for retailers and distributors. Secondary data from internet and literature have been used. |Sr. No |Data required |Data sources |Tools used | |1. |Turnover, Supply. Market share, Main products, Production |Current Internet, Unstructured interviews with the | | |facilities-capacity, technology; Profits, Future estimates |players, |associated employees, Annual Report study, Indian | | |of demand ,area of operation, |supplier |Export Agency-internet | |2. |Manufacturers, Prices, Volumes, Consuming segment, Margins |Product |Internet, Unstructured interviews with the | | |in different formats, Channels for different formats. formats, |retailers, distributors, Annual Report study of | | | |Channel |players | |3. |Distribution c hannels, margins, mode of operation, |Channel |Internet, structured interviews. | | |incentives | | | |4. Institutional buyers, consumers-segment, consumer |Consumers, |Consumer survey, structured/unstructured | | |preferences, acceptability, product and brand recognition |Retailers |interviews/focussed group surveys, Retailer survey| | |,benefits, value for money ,future market-volume/sales | | | 1. 4. Sampling plan The consumer related result is based on fifty consumers surveys conducted in nine cities namely Anand, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Karnal, Panchkula, Chandigarh and Gurgaon. The retailers, distributors and Modern Format Stores were approached randomly without any restriction on numbers. The idea has been to get qualitative and quantitative information both. 1. 5 Limitations of the study 1. The number of consumers surveyed is not sufficient to generalise the results. However the results are indicative in nature. 2. Time allotted for the study is not sufficient. 3. Qualitative information has been used to understand different requirements of whey business in India. 4. Unavailability of authentic secondary sources for getting information related to gyms, medical stores, and whey utilisation in India etc. . Understanding Whey 2. 1. Whey: Introduction Whey is a by-product of cheese, Paneer and Shrikhand. It is a green yellowish fluid. It can also be called as the water of Paneer, Cheese, and Shrikhand . There are two varieties of whey based on acidity: sweet and acid whey. Similarly the classification of whey has been done on the basis of its source e. g. cas ein or cheese. The developed world has very high per capita consumption of cheese with respect to developing or underdeveloped world; therefore the whey production is mainly concentrated in the developed countries only. 2. 2. Importance of whey Whey contains very nutritive constituents like Whey proteins -Immunoglobulin, amino-acids both essential and non-essential, lactoferin riboflavin, lactose etc which are very important for the body. Whey protein has very High biological and Protein Efficiency Ratio . Thus it is rated as the best protein. Because of technological advancement, these constituents can be separated from the whey. The importance of whey therefore lies due to following reasons: 1. Highly priced: because of very sophisticated technology and high demand for the separated constituents, these are highly priced. 2. Whey has very high Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand (>40000), therefore it poses serious threat to environment. The Government has made strict norms related to environmental pollution. ISO -14000 is basically meant for controlling the environmental pollution related to any manufacturing units. Above two reasons pose a challenge to the whey producing companies to efficiently utilise it. 2. 3. Properties and application of whey Because of the functionality of whey, it finds use in the manufacture of various fields and products. Table 1. Functionality and application of whey Functional Property |Application | |Whipping/Foaming |Egg less cakes, Dessert, Whipped toppings | |Emulsification |Sausages, Coffee whiteners, Soups, Cakes, Infant Formula, Biscuits | |Gelation |Meats, Baked foods, Cheeses, curd, yoghurt | |Viscosity |Soups, Gravies, Salad Dressings | |Water Binding/Mineral Binding |Cakes, Meats , Sausages, Nutritional foods | |Solubility |Beverages | |Browning |Breads, Biscuits, Confectionery, Sauces | |Flavour/Aroma |Baked goods, Biscuits, Confections | From above table it is very much evident that whey has very wide application in food and pharmaceutical industry. 3. Global Whey Business It has already been mentioned that the whey is a by-product of cheese which is mainly consumed in the developed world, particularly Europe and United States. Therefore its production is mainly concentrated in these countries. Global production of whey has been 177 mn MT in 2006 with a value of $ 9bn which is expected to grow annually at 2-3 % for next 5 years. The major contribution in production i. e. approx. 94% is due to Cheese whey and emaining is due to casein whey. Salient features of Global Whey business †¢ About 70% is utilised for industrial purpose and remaining is used for cattle feed, fertilisers and some quantity goes waste. †¢ Fifty six percent of the whey used for industrial purpose is utilised for manufacturing of Whey powders and lactose while nearly 35% is utilised for Whey protein concentrate and permeate and the remaining 9% is used for Dimineralised products and blends. †¢ Approximately 80% of whey products are traded as commodity while 20% is traded as value added products. †¢ In global trade, USA ranks first in export of whey powders(19. 4% share) and China leads in import with 15. % share. (See the annexure containing list of ten major exporting-importing countries) †¢ Majority of key global whey processing companies are located in US and European union. (see the figure 1 on next page) 3. 2 Lactose Lactose is a very important constituent of whey . The total global production was 870000 MT which is expected to grow at the rate of 5-6 % annually. This is mainly used in pharmaceutical, bakery, confectionery industry and in the preparation of infant formula etc. The major global producers of lactose have been shown in the figure 2. Figure 1: Global Whey processing companies [pic] Figure 2: Global lactose producers [pic] The production and application pattern of lactose is different across different part of the world . This is evident from following pie diagram: Figure 3: Global Lactose Processors [pic] Figure 4: Application of Lactose in EU and US [pic] As far its global trade is concerned, USA still is the leader. The realisation from lactose has increased from $ 670 mn in 2004 to $ 1930 mn in 2006 mainly because of spurt in demand. Table 2: Global whey exporters and importers [pic] 3. 3 Global Price rise Over the years there has been a steep rise in the prices of whey products due to increase in demand. Following table will explain the change in the global prices over last years: Table 3: Global Prices (European Union) |Year |WP ($/lb) |WPC($/lb) |Lactose($/lb) | |2004 |0. 284 |0. 588 |0. 1875 | |2005 |0. 316 |0. 82 |0. 1925 | |2006 |0. 489 |0. 69 |0. 3075 | |2007(May) |0. 727 |1. 35 |0. 4 | Source: USDA, NASS, Dairy Market Report, 2007 As the whey from India is traded in the global market, so the price fluctuation decides the volume of business from India. Since the prices of WPC, WP and Lactose have increased substantially in last 2 years and more importantly in early 2007, therefore the profitability of the business has increased. When we consider the price fluctuation of Skim Milk Powder (SMP) and Whey powder with same protein then we find that there has been clear cut price appreciation in WP prices over SMP prices and the difference between per MT prices has in fact increased between these two commodities. Figure 5: Price of SMP and Whey proteins Source: www. fas. usda. gov In 2007, the price rise has been very fast as evident from following graph showing the variation. Figure 6: Global Whey powder prices w. r. t SMP in 2007 Source: USDA, NASS, Dairy Market Report, 2007 4. Indian Whey Industry Whey business in India has been in existence for last 15 years when Cepham Ltd and Mahan Protein started operation in 1992-1994. This business over the years has expanded in terms of volume and value and more Indian private companies have entered into this business. 4. 1 Structure of Whey business in India The structure of Whey Industry in India can be explained below: 4. 1. The nature of industry: Whey is a part of food industry. There are relatively small numbers of whey processing companies in India unlike milk processing companies. Also there are less number of bulk domestic buyers of whey based commodities in India. The production is mainly export oriented. 4. 1. 2 Government regulation: whe y poses environmental threat because of very high B. O. D and C. O. D level. There are environmental regulations framed by the government unlike SMP which has become prone to export ban. Whey powders are not exposed to export ban till now. 4. 1. 3 Type of producers: The whey processing companies are mainly the private Indian players. None of the Multi National Companies and Co-operatives have ventured into this field as they are operating in mass market and don’t want to enter into commodity market . However many global producers are now eyeing India as a potential manufacturing location because of the increased demand of whey products in the global market. 4. 1. 4 Cost and production considerations: The technology of whey processing is more sophisticated than that for traditional dairy products. Globally three generation products are manufactured from whey. These are listed below. These require different kind of technology. Processing technology and product details has been mentioned in the following table. Table 4: Product manufactured and technology used in whey Generation product |Product name |Technology used | |First generation |Whey powder, WPC 35,Lactose |Ultra filtration / Nano-filtration | |Second generation |WPC-80,DWP,Sweeteners,Minerals |Ion -Exchange | |Third generation |Whey protein fraction s, Lactose derivatives, |Chromatography, fractionation technology | | |WPH,WPI | | The cost of production mainly depends on the procurement price of raw material like milk and the availability of milk through out the year . Due to unavailability of milk throughout the year , the production in many plants are stopped during the lean period i. e. April- July. 4. 1. 5 Major whey processing companies in India: Whey business has not been a big industry in terms of quantity of milk processed. When we consider the quantity of milk processed by all the Indian companies the quantity of milk diverted for whey production is less than 1%. Currently there are mainly eight whey processing companies in India. The daily milk handling capacities and production capacities of these plants have been mentioned in the following table 5. Table 5: Major whey processing companies in India: Name |Milk handling |Casein |WPC-WP |Lactose | | |Capacity |(MT/Day) |(MT/day) |(MT/Day) | | |(lakh lts /day) | | | | |VRS Foods Ltd |15 |40 |20 |25 | |Mahaan Proteins |6 |15 |10 |18 | |Modern Dairies Ltd |10 |25 |15 |18 | |Dynamix Dairies Ltd |5 |8 |5 |8 | |Milk food Ltd |8 |15 |10 |15 | |Cepham Ltd |6 |14 |8 |12 | |Bhole Baba Dairy |10 |24 |14 |15 | |Crown Milk Spl. Ltd. |5 |10 |6 |0 | |Total |65 |151 |88 |111 | |Annual(2007 Estimate) |17793. 75 |33069 |19272 |24309 | Source: informal, ex-employees. Most of these companies are situated in the northern part of India and the main reason sighted was availability of milk in these areas. From the table it s very evident that VRS Foods, Sahibabad is the leader with 22% contribution in the total milk utilisation followed by Karnal based Modern Dairies with production concentration 16%. One of the key features of the whey industry in India has been its fast evolution. There were mainly 4 whey processing companies in India till 2005,which increased to 8 in 2007,most of which have started operation in late 2006. The reason of this expansion has been the increase in demand of the whey based products and rise in global prices of these products. The evolution and expansion of the whey industry in India will be clear from following graph. Figure 7: Expansion of whey industry in India Thus the expansion has been by 120% in last two years. Looking the lucre in the industry more companies are thinking to enter into this business. Some the companies which are thinking to enter into the business are: a) Anik ,Etah b) Hatsun Agro,Chennai c) Doiba Foods, Palwal d) Nectar,Pathankoth e) VRS Foods,Sahibabad:It is going to start its new by-product unit in Nasik. These companies are expected to add 40 lakh ltrs of milk to the existing industry volume by 2009. As already been mentioned, these plants are using the casein whey . Only Dynamix Dairies Ltd. , Baramati is using some cheese whey for manufacturing whey powders. 4. 1. 6 Major buyers of whey products in India The whey Powders, Lactose, Whey protein concentrates, Dimineralised whey Powders etc are mainly exported. However in India these are used by many pharmaceutical, dairy, bakery, confectionery companies etc. Some of the major bulk buyers include Nestle, Glaxo-Smithclime Beecham Ltd, Wockhardt Ltd, Novartis, Cadilla. There are small buyers as well but these are mainly in bakery and confectionery industry. WPC has been used widely in Ice-cream industry. Similarly Lactose and DWP are being used in infant formula and neutraceuticals. Exact volume of industry wise utilisation in India is not available. However it has been said by the industry people that most (approx. 75-80%) of Whey powders and WPC are exported but lactose is consumed locally in more quantity. 4. 1. 7 Entry and Exit barriers in whey business industry India Currently the Indian whey industry is running and expanding because of the rise in the global prices of these products. As per the views of the industry experts some of the entry barriers in whey business include: a) The availability of raw milk: As most of the dairy plants are already into different dairy products manufacturing, so they are able to procure most of the milk of that region. The new entrant will have to divert milk from the existing players. It will mean more prices to be paid to the producers. This unavailability of milk becomes a major entry barrier. b) High investment: As the whey processing plants require relatively more sophisticated plant and technology, therefore a large amount of investment has to be made. For example, most of the existing whey processing plants have invested around 70-100 crores for 10 lakh ltrs plant. This is a key barrier. This high investment also becomes an exit barrier as these equipments cannot be used for other dairy products. And coupled with the above reason, there are les numbers of people buying out the machineries. This further discourages the existing players to exit. The live examples are Mahaan Proteins Ltd. and Ceepham Milk Specialities Ltd, Derabassi which are finding it difficult to procure milk in sufficient quantity and simultaneously unable to sale it off for better price. 4. 1. 8 Product differentiation: Currently the whey based powders are traded in commodity markets. So there is no differentiation in terms of brand and specificity. However, there some companies like VRS Foods, are making specific products like 28% Dimineralised Whey Protein Concentrate for Nestle. 4. 1. 9 Location advantage: Most of the plants are situated in northern part of India particularly Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Some companies like VRS Foods have locational advantage as they are present in the area where milk production is maximum and there is no control of any co-operative and Multinational companies in terms of milk procurement. So, they are open to procure more milk at comparatively lower rate than in those areas where there are co-operatives and MNCs having firm procurement base. The locational advantage however does not help more in case of saving transportation cost as most of the manufactured products are meant for export only. 4. 2. Conduct of the whey processing companies in India As already mentioned, the Whey processing plants are operating in commodity market. So there is no advantage in terms of brands. The advantage however lies with respect to availability of technology. Some of the compaies like VRS Foods have dimineralisation facilities unlike others. The summary of the conduct of the whey processing companies can be represented through table 6 provided below. Table 6: Conduct of whey processing companies in India Name |Name of |Major selling |Any alliance |Future | | |Brand |activity | |Targets/Remark | |VRS Foods Ltd |Paras |Export, Nestle |Nestle-Production |Handling capacity to | | | | |Contract |increase by 6 lakh/Day | | | | |(28%DWPC, | | | | | |600MT/Month-Lactose | | |Mahaan Proteins |Mahaan |Export, |   |UF line revamped | | | |Wockha rdt, GSK, | | | | |Novartis | | | |Modern Dairies Ltd |Nulife |Export |Olam International |Handling capacity to | | | | | |increase by 5 lakh | |Dynamix Dairies Ltd |- |Export ,Nestle, |Olam International |- | | | |Pharmaceutical companies | | | |Milk food Ltd |Milk Food |Export |- |- | |Bhole Baba Dairy |Krishna |Export, |- |- | | | |Pharmaceutical companies | | | Thus from the table we get that Dynamix Dairies Ltd and Modern Dairies Ltd sells their products to Olam International. For lactose, however Dynamix has local agent situated in Mumbai. Other companies export on their own brand. VRS Foods, Modern Dairies and Mahaan proteins are already thinking of increasing their handling capacities. This is likely to be operational by next year. 4. 2. 1 Where are the whey products exported? As already been mentioned, most of the whey products are exported to various countries. The export has also increased drastically during last two years. The major exporting destinations have been listed in the following table. Table 7: Exporting destinations of whey products from India |Country Name |2004 |% share |2005 |% share | |KOREA RP |391 |72. 11% |279 |10. 30% | |Canada |97 |17. 88% |0 |0 | |Bangladesh |40 |7. 6% |0 |0 | |BAHARAIN |11 |1. 99% |3 |0. 13% | |Oman |2 |0. 43% |82 |3. 05% | |Sri Lanka |1 |0. 23% |0 |0 | |Thailand |0 |0% |0 |0 | |CHINA P RP |0 |0% |2,091 |77. 30% | |Japan |0 |0% |174 |6. 4% | |Malaysia |0 |0 |75 |2. 78% | |Total(000, USD) |542 |   |2704 |   | |Annual Growth (%) in export|398. 9 |   |   |   | Source: www. apeda. com From the above table we find that the major exporting destinations for India are china, Korea, Japan, Malaysia and Oman. There has been change in the contribution in export from different countries. China has become the main ex porting destinations with more than 77% share in total export in 2005. This is primarily because of the rise in demand for whey based products due to emphasis of china government on sports and upcoming sports events. 4. 3. Performance of whey business in India The performance of whey business in India could be understood through performance under following parameters: 4. 3. 1 Efficiency of production: Efficiency of production mainly relies on the consistent and regular supply of raw material mainly milk . It has been observed that in lean season there is unavailability of milk and therefore the plant runs at lower capacity and thus efficiency reduces. As per the comments of industry experts, the output has been more than 100 % during flush season when there is regular and sufficient supply of milk. 4. 3. Profitability: The profitability of whey business is highly dependent ion the global prices foe WP, WPC, Lactose and the procurement price of raw milk. Over last two years it has been very profitable as the price of milk has remained same and the global ; prices of the products have sky rocketed. The profitability ranges from 10-30 % depending on price fluctuation as reported by industry persons. 4. 3. 3 Size of industry output: The size of Whey industry has been estimated to be around 45000 MT in India in 2007which is expected to grow very fast. With respect to global scenario, the Indian whey industry is expected to grow at more than 20% over next 4-5 years. 4. 3. Technical progress: Currently India is manufacturing generation one whey products. There are some cases (VRS Foods) where ion exchange etc has been added which lead to 2nd generation products. But in next 4-5 years the concentration is likely to remain on the production of 1st generation product only. 4. 3. 5 Growth: The whey industry is expanding very fast. As been mentioned earlier the daily processing of milk is likely to rise from 65 lakh ltrs/day to 105 lakh ltrs/day in India. Thus the growth is likely to be 60% over 2007 by 2009 in volumes. Similarly the export is likely to increase by more than 75% in next two years. 5. Value added products of whey proteins Whey constituents are used in various areas ranging from bakeries, confectionery to health products like infant formula and protein supplements. Apart from these, the use ranges from a normal whey drink to whey protein based drinks. Protein supplements have been classified into two broad categories based on its manufacturer. These are: Pharma protein supplements and Non-Pharma Protein supplements . Pharma protein supplements are manufactured by pharmaceutical companies while Non-Pharma Protein supplements are manufactured either by a nutrition or food company. 5. 1. Pharma protein supplements market in India 5. 1. 1 Some of the key features of protein supplements made by pharmaceutical companies are: 1. These products are consumed by the recommendation of doctors mainly and in some cases the past experience related to product use is the force to purchase these products. 2. This is an organized market and the players are well established in the market. 3. These products over the years have also become Over the Counter (OTC) products. It has been found that brands like proteinex symbolizes all range of protein supplements. Table 8:Indian Pharma Protein Supplement market. |Year:2006-07 |Volume (Ton) |Value | | | |( US $ mn) | |Proteinex sales |4274. 941 |95. 0197 | |Protein supplement market-sales(estimated-2007) |15267. 65 |270. 6537 | |Annual growth rate of protein supplement category (%)|17 |   | |Annual growth rate of proteinex (%) |25 |   | |Market share of proteinex (%) |   |28 | Source: Source:www. eac. dk/eac_en/ir/pr/2002, www. wockhardt. co. uk Some of the major brands of protein supplements available in India have been listed below in the table. Table 9: Major brands of Pharma protein supplements in India Brand |Manufacturer | |Proteinex |Wockhardt | |Protenose |Allembic | |B-protein |Britishbiologicals | |Spert |Novartis | |Alprovit |Alchem | |GRD |Cadilla | |Ultrich |Wallace | |Promolan |Piramal | |Resource |Novartis | 5. 1. Distribution channel of Pharma Protein supplements in India As already been mentioned, the Pharma protein supplements market in India is organized in nature. To understand the value chain of these products the proteinex channel has been used. The table shown below explains the distribution channel of proteinex. Table 10: Distribution channel of Pharma protein supplements in India. |Channel |Price at different levels(Rs/200 gm proteinex*) |% Margin | |Manufacturer |68. 5 |20 | |Superstockist |68. 5+27. 5=96 |3 | |Distributor |96+4. =100. 1 |7 | |Retailer |100. 11+9. 59=109. 7 |20 | |Consumer |109. 7+27. 4=137 |0 | Source: Informal talks with retailers and wholesale dealers in Ahmedabad. 6. Non Pharma Protein Supplement mar ket: Current Scenario Non pharma protein supplements market in India is at nascent stage . This is relatively less organized market when we compare it with the Pharma protein supplements. Basically there are two kinds of Non-Pharma Protein supplements based on their place of manufacturing: 1. Domestic: Indian 2. Imported 6. 1. Imported Protein supplements As the name suggests these are manufactured mainly in countries of European Unions, USA, and Australia. 6. 1. 1 These imported protein supplements have following key features in Indian context: 1. These are premium priced. 2. In many cases, these supplements don’t have traceability in terms of their manufacturers and importing-exporting agencies. In some cases however it was found to have these information. 3. These products have high protein concentrates, mainly whey proteins. 4. There are sole whey protein supplements available in the Indian market. Whey protein ranges from 35 % to 100%. 5. These supplements are having packing size ranging from 2. 2 lb to 10 lb. 6. The final price in the Indian market is dependent on the retailer as it was found to be reprinted on the jars/containers. 7. These products do not have consistent supply as expressed by some of the distributors. 8. These products are mainly sold by the gym owners and dedicated protein supplement stores. These products are largely unavailable in medical stores and Speciality stores. However in some cities like Mumbai, some Modern Format Stores like Big Bazaar is keeping this product. 6. 1. 2 Major imported brands in India Globally some of the famous brands of Non-Pharma Protein supplements have been mentioned below: AST Sports Science, Beverly Internationa, Biotest, Champion Nutrition, Cytodyne, Cytosport ,EAS Gaspari ,Instone Nutrition, Labrada Nutrition, Met Rx, MuscleTech, Optimum Nutrition, Pinnacle ProLab ,SAN Nutrition, Twin Lab, Universal Nutrition, VPX Supplements. However not all of these brands are available in India. Some of the famous brands which are available in India are: Optimum,Prolab,Hercules,Muscletech,EAS,Universal,Labrada, Amway etc. It was observed that Optimum brand has maximum reach in terms of placement. These brands have different variants based on whey protein content, special ingredients like Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCCA), other essential micronutrients etc. 6. 1. 3 Distribution channel of Non-Pharma Protein Supplements The distribution channel of N-PPS could be understood through following figure Figure 8: Distribution channel of imported N-PPS [pic] Thus we find that there are mainly 6 channels of distribution. Based on the responses of the gym owners, retailers, distributors, Modern Format Stores employees, the margin available for the intermediaries is between 40-50%. This further increases when the prices have been reprinted on the product. It has been expressed by these intermediaries that the distributors have a margin of 15-20% while retailers have margin of 25-30 %. These retailers and gyms have higher margin based on the number of intermediaries in the channel, the less the number of intermediaries, the more the margins available. Thus for modern format store as a placement point, the margins available for sharing is around 40-45% ,from which they can give discounts to consumers up to 5-10 % . This trend was seen in Mumbai unlike other metropolitan cities such as Delhi. Similarly, in some medical stores these products were kept and the discount was not available to the consumers. These retail points were garnering 30% of the margin. 6. 2. Indian Non Pharma Protein Supplement market  : current scenario The Indian non-pharma protein supplement market is unorganised in nature . There are many small players operating in different regions of the country. It has been observed that these players are not able to reach different regions of India. These protein supplements have not become a brand in India. 6. 2. 1 Some of the important features of Indian Non pharma protein supplements are: 1. It is manufactured by local and very small players. 2. Prices are kept higher to give it quality product look. 3. The exact composition i. e. protein source, its concentration etc is not mentioned. 4. The manufacturing date, location etc are not mentioned. Labelling is a problem in many cases. 5. These products are strongly thought to be having very harmful side effects. 6. These products have very high margins. It has been observed practically that the margin ranged from 40-60% for the retailer on these Non-pharma protein Supplements. 7. These products are mainly sold in packing size of 500gms, 1 kg, 2 kgs and 5 kgs. 8. These products find good penetration in medical stores and gyms. But these gyms and stores are of relatively lower category. 6. 2. 2 Some of the major Indian brands of non-pharma protein supplements are: 1. Nutramen 2. Endura 3. Stamin 4. Bodyplus 5. ESN 6. Some brands owned by gym owners like Talwalkers. These are the gym chains. They manufacture protein supplements for their own consumers. 6. 2. 3 Distribution Channel of Indian Non-pharma protein supplements The existing distribution channel for Indian non-pharma protein supplements have been explained using following diagram. Figure 9: Distribution channel of Indian N-PPS [pic] From above diagram it could be understood that there are three channels of distribution unlike imported NPPS. The margin available for the intermediaries is around 40%. These products however are sold mostly through gyms and medical stores. Supplements stores have very little share in the total off take, the exact quantity not available. From the diagram it is also very evident that the margins available for the distributor is 15 %. In some cases when he himself becomes the retailer i. e. the gym owner then he has margin of 40% from which he also gives discounts to the consumers. 7. Survey analysis 7. 1. Gym Goers Some of the key findings of the consumer survey based on nine cities have been listed below: 1. Profile of the gym goers: these mainly belong to class A1, A2, B1 category of SEC (Socio Economic Classification). Although the age ranges from 15 yrs to 60 yrs but mostly the gym goers are between 20-40 yrs of age range. They are students (mainly), professionals, executives, government employees, housewives etc. These people wear sporty, reputed and contemporary outfit. 2. Category of gym goers: 65-70% of members are male and 30-35 % is females. In small cities however the % of females is slightly less (20%). 3. Joining health clubs and gyms has become one of the key options for the people to keep themselves fit. 4. Awareness about the whey protein supplements is not adequate. People are not able to differentiate between sports, health and fitness drinks. 5. Most of the consumers, gym trainers and dieticians surveyed responded that whey protein is the best protein. 6. The gym goers perceive the fear of harmful effects of protein supplements. They think that these contain steroids. 7. Protein supplement users: approximately 30-40% of the gym goers are the regular members. On an average the % of gym goers is 10-12% of the total members. 8. The average member size of gym ranged from 250 in Karnal to 757 in Mumbai. The average of all these cities being 524 members per gym. 9. The average gym density varied from 38000 in Anand to 75000 in Delhi. Gym density is the population of the locality divided by the number of gyms in that locality. The average is around 53000. 10. Around 0. 98% of the population goes to the gyms. 0. 37 % of the total population are the regular members of the gyms. 11. Average Per capita monthly consumption of protein supplement by the protein supplement users is 830 gms and the per capita monthly expenditure is Rs 1370. 12. The purchase from the influence of gym trainers is 63%. More is in case of smaller cities than the bigger cities. 13. The aggregate demand of the N-PPS in Urban India is 2383 MT having value 427 crores. 14. Consumers view superior and high protein content, absence of any side effects, presence of other essential nutrients and mass building capacity of the product as the key attributes of the product. Price, brand, taste, and packaging did not find significant importance. Powder was understood product format for them. 15. Most of the consumers completely agree with Amul brand signifying quality, value for money and easy availability. 16. Most of the consumers somewhat agreed with the fact that big companies can enter into the N-PPS business . But they agreed that Amul can become a leader. 17. Developing value for money product, creating awareness and identifying the right distribution channel will be the key for Amul to become market leader. 7. 2. Key findings from Retailers and distributors interview/interaction These are based on the qualitative interaction with the current intermediaries in the distribution channel of the N-PPS. 1. Most of the retailers indicated higher margin in absolute term being the motivation for placing these products in their stores. 2. It has been observed that the off take of the product is more from gyms and recommended stores. The recommendation actually playing significant role in product off-take. 3. Retailers were agreeing on the fact that side effect is the main concern for consumer. 4. A trusted brand is needed for these products to be consumed by more aspiring people. 5. Amul could be successful provided it offers the similar kind of incentives in absolute terms to the placement points like retailers-gyms, Stores etc. 6. How Amul Creates and spreads awareness will decide the penetration of the product. 7. Purchase from retail outlets like big bazaar is possible when consumers are aware of these products. 7. 3. View points of dieticians and the food scientists Based on the views of the scientists of reputed institutes like National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, the key factors which will decide the acceptance of these products will be development of products based on Indian likes (e. g. taste, flavour etc. and communication of these products to the consumers. The scientists expressed that the consumers must be educated about the whey protein being the best protein, and the convenience protein as it easily mixes into the blood. The dieticians at various gyms were acknowledging the fact that whey proteins are the best proteins. They also said that t he consumers are very anxious about the results. They expect quick results. Whey proteins because of very high Biological value produce fast result. Whey proteins can also be used for fitness and efficiency building. It can be used by fat and obese people. It not only compensates for their energy requirement but also provides lean muscle. Dieticians expressed that Body to Mass Ratio (BMR) is a very good indicator for protein requirement. 8. Estimation of Demand of Non-pharma protein supplements in India As already mentioned the Non-pharma protein supplement market in India is highly unorganised and very less secondary information is available in related to number of gyms, gym density, per capita NPPS consumption, market growth rate etc. Therefore primary research was done using consumer survey questionnaire, and checklist for retailers particularly gyms. Nine cities were taken into consideration. 8. 1. Following assumptions have been taken into consideration while estimating demand of NPPS in India: 1. The N-PPS are consumed mainly by the gym goers. 2. The list of the number of gyms available from internet and the number of gyms reported by the gym owners in each city were considered together. The former was given 30% weight and the later was given 70 % . The basic idea was to make an approximation based on the response of the gym owners, consumers and the available list. 3. The annual multiplication factor has been calculated based on the consumption pattern of protein supplements users. Generally a consumer uses the products for 7 months in a year. Around 20% of consumers leave the product in a month, while 80% continue for above mentioned period. Also 80% of the protein supplement users actually continue for 7 months. Thus multiplication factor = 0. 8*0. 8*7+0. 2*1=4. 68. 4. Average per capita monthly consumption of protein supplements (among users only) and their monthly expenses on it are the parameters used for demand estimation in terms of quantity and value. 5. The response of the retailers and gym owners regarding growth of the market has been considered for finding the average annual growth rate and using it for projecting demand for next 5 years. 6. The amount of N-PPS consumed is a mixture of 40 % and 70% whey protein powders. So, the final demand estimated will represent 55% whey protein containing N-PPS. Table 11: City wise demand estimation of N-PPS |Cities |Population |Number of gyms: | Listed gyms: |Estimated gyms |Gym density | |   |2007(approx. |response based |internet based |ratio:(70/30) |   | |Mumbai |19264521 |500 |214 |414. 2 |46510 | |Pune |4408248 |120 |71 |105. 3 |41864 | |Delhi |15095075 |250 |81 |199. 3 |75740 | |Gurgaon |1000000 |30 |   |21 |47619 | |Panchkula |200000 |12 |   |8. |23810 | |Chandigarh |900000 |40 |   |28 |32143 | |Karnal |200000 |10 |   |7 |28571 | |Ahmedabad |5304257 |100 |26 |77. 8 |68178 | |Anand |400000 |15 |   |10. 5 |38095 | |Total |46772101 |1077 |   |871. 5 |53669 | †¦ continued (table horizontally associated with next one) |Average gym |% of people |Avg monthly |Avg monthly |Supplement |Monthly | |goers/gym |going gym |consumption(gm) |budget(Rs) |user/gym | consumption(MT) | |757 |1. 63 |825 |1750 |74 |25. 14 | |580 |1. 39 |733 |1400 |65 |4. 99 | |471 |0. 2 |925 |1540 |59 |10. 90 | |467 |0. 98 |733 |1233 |65 |1. 00 | |367 |1. 54 |600 |850 |48 |0. 24 | |450 |1. 40 |1250 |1500 |39 |1. 37 | |250 |0. 88 |750 |1550 |40 |0. 21 | |450 |0. 6 |950 |1300 |33 |2. 40 | |500 |1. 31 |700 |1200 |40 |0. 29 | |524 |0. 98 |830 |1369 |   |46. 55 | Table 12: Demand estimation of N-PSS of top 35 cities of India |Population |Number |Total Population- |% representation |Representative |Annual |Annual | |20L-40L |5 |14329950 |13. 6 |Gurgaon, |83. 5 |117238752 | | | | | |Chandigar h | | | |40L-80L |5 |30816617 |31. 52 |Ahmedabad, |109. 7 |190222388 | | | | | |Pune | | | |>80L |3 |49839421 |68. 94 |Delhi, |244. |485241953 | | | | | |Mumbai | | | |Total |35 |126885770 | |Red bull |Energy |47 | |Monster |Energy |12 | |Rock star |Energy |11 | |Gatorade |Sports |85 | |Powerade |Sports |13 | |Lucozade |Sports |1 | In India however very few global brands like Red bull, Power House and Gatorade are available. 10. Demand Estimation of Sports and Fitness drinks in India 10. 1. Following features of sports and fitness drinks consumer could be used to estimate the demand of these drinks: 1. These are consumed by relatively rich class and upper middle class people. 2. Sports drinks are popular among 15-30 yrs while Fitness drinks popular among 30-60 yrs people. 3. These are sporty in nature and try to adopt the sporty culture very fast, so they like to wear brands related to sports. 10. 2. U. K sports drink market The U. K sports drinks market was estimated to be of 110 mn ltrs in 2006 by Zenith international, a market research agency. Per capita annual consumption has increased from 0. ltrs in 2000 to 1. 8 ltrs in 2006. Following graph shows the Per Capita Consumption of Sports Drinks in U. K. Figure 12: Per capita consumption of sports drinks in U. K [pic] The growth in per capita consumption can be understood from following diagram. Figure 13: Growth of U. K sports drink market [pic] From the a bove diagram it is quite evident that the growth rate was very high initially around 2000-02 but it declined in subsequent years and almost remaining constant at 13-14%. This pattern could be used to further project the demand. 10. 3 Some of the assumptions being made for demand calculations are: 1. The pattern of consumption of U. K has been used as an indicator. 2. Adoption of sporty culture has been considered as a comparing parameter. 3. Per Capita annual Income of U. K people has been used to identify the potential consumer. 4. The relationship between Per Capita annual Income and Per capita annual consumption has been used to find out demand for similar kind of Indian consumers. 5. Urban population has been considered only. 10. 4 Steps followed 1. The relationship between PCI and PCC for U. K consumer is estimated using simple regression analysis. The relationship was significant and the model was robust. The relationship obtained is: PCC (Ltrs) =-2. 51175+0. 00123PCI (PPP) 2. The segment of population having comparable income to PCI of U. K is found out from secondary data available at www. ncaer. org. The PCI data is converted from nominal to PCI -PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) in dollar terms using 1$ =Rs 42 as conversion factor. 3. Conversion factor for PCI (nominal) to PCI(PPP)=Current PCI (PPP) of In dia/Current PCI(nominal) of India=$4031/$885 =4. 55 4. The Urban population belonging to age group 15-30 yrs and 30-60 yrs has been taken from www. censusindia. net . For both the population 0. 6 multiplication factor has been used assuming all males and only 20% of the females as the customers. 5. The adoption of sporty culture has been calculated from the responses of the consumers while conducting consumer survey. The brands like Nike, Adidas, and Reebok have been used for this purpose. 50% of the consumers were of this category. So to the total consumers estimated in step 4, 0. 5 has been multiplied to obtain the potential customers. 6. By using the relationship in step 1 and Income from step 2, PCC of sports drinks can be calculated. This has been multiplied by the number of potential customers obtained in step 5. This will give the total demand of the sports and fitness drinks. Following table shows the demand of Sports and Fitness drinks in Urban India. Table 14: Calculated Demand of SFD in India [pic] 1. Amul Capabilities To understand whether Amul could be able to tap this lucrative market, following capabilities have been analysed: 1. Availability of raw materials-whey 2. Technical capabilities. 3. Marketing capabilities. 11. 1. Availability of raw materials-whey Currently the sources of whey for Amul are: Paneer, Shrikhand and Cheese. Following table shows the current availability of the whey for Amul. Table 15: Sources of whey in Amul [pic] As mentioned in the above table, the annual growth rate for cheese, paneer and shrikhand demand could be used to project the availability of whey in next five years. Based on following information the gap between the availability of whey and its demand could be estimated: 1. One Kg of whey protein could be obtained from 143 kgs of liquid whey as liquid whey has 0. 7% whey protein. 2. The sports and fitness drinks will have 5% whey protein. 3. The average whey protein concentration of the N-PPS demand calculated is 55%. Figure 14: The future projections of Whey production in Amul [pic] Following table shows the aggregated gap between the availability and total demand of whey protein based sports and fitness drinks and N-PPS. Table 16: Estimation of gap between the production of whey and demand of whey based substances (N-PPS/SFD).    |Lakh ltrs |Lakh ltrs |Whey proteins |Demand- |Whey protein |Equivalent | | | | | |NPPS | | | |Year |per day |Available |available(MT) |55% (MT) |Content |Whey(Lakh ltrs) | | | | | | |(MT) | | |2007 |2. 19 |658 |461 |2374 |1306 |1865. 3 | |2008 |2. 91 |872 |610 |2843 |1564 |2233. 8 | |2009 |3. 88 |1164 |814 |3419 |1 880 |2686. 4 | |2010 |5. 21 |1562 |1094 |4130 |2272 |3245. | |2011 |7. 03 |2109 |1477 |5011 |2756 |3937. 2 | †¦ (Continued horizontally) |SD/FD |Total Whey Required |Difference |% Whey availability | |(lakh Ltrs) |(Lakh ltrs) |(Demand-Supply)-MT | | |67 |1932 |1274 |34 | |163 |2397 1525 |36 | |285 |2972 |1808 |39 | |438 |3683 |2121 |42 | |628 |4565 |2456 |46 | Thus the whey available is able to meet around 35% of the total demand of N-PPS and SFD. 11. 2. Amul Technical Capabilities: Size of the Whey processing plant Amul currently does not possess any whey processing plant. As there is availability of whey already, to operate efficiently i. e. leverage upon economies of scale it will have to divert some milk for whey production. It has been observed that the whey processing plant in India is having handling capacity between 5-10 lakh ltrs per day . The capital investment on these plants have been from 60-100 crores. Assuming the plant of capacity 10 lakh ltrs/day, the amount of whey generated will be 67% i. e. 6. 7 lakh ltrs. So the initial difference would be 4. 5 lakh ltrs of whey i. e. 6. 7 lakh ltrs of Skim milk (S. M). Assuming Amul to capture share of 50% of current demand, the capacity required after 5 years hence will be around 8 lakh ltrs of whey i. e. 12 lakh ltrs of S. M. So ideally the plant handling capacity could be 12 lakh ltrs per day. Table 17: Realisation from By-product plant at current market price.    |Qty(Kg) |Price(Rs) |Total(Rs) | |Skim Milk (S. M) |100 |13 |1300 | |Casein |2. 7 |350 |945 | |Whey protein-35 |2. 00 |250 |500 | |Lactose |3. 40 |100 |340 | |Realisation on S. M | | |485 | |% Realisation on S. M | | |37 | |All other [email  protected]% | | |325 | |Net realisation | | |160 | |% Net realisation | | |12. 31 | For 10 lakh ltrs milk per day or assuming 300 working days, the net realisation will be Rs 48 crores. The investment made on the plant is around Rs 120 crores for 10 lakh ltrs plant. Return on capital employed would be=48*100/120=40%. Currently Amul has two facilities for product development: 1. Vidya Dairy ,Anand 2. Khatrej Cheese Plant 11. 3. Marketing capabilities of Amul For product like Protein Supplements and sports and fitness drinks it is very important to assess the marketing capabilities before launching the product as these products require non-conventional distribution channel and promotion activities. 11. 3. 1 Analysis of Amul as a brand It is very important to understand the popularity of Amul Brand among the potential customers. This will indicate the acceptance of Amul products. The analysis included consumer survey. The consumers were asked the question what Amul is known for. The responses were scaled from 1 to 7, 1 being ompletely disagree, and 4 being neither agree nor disagree and 7 being completely agree. The responses have been summarised below. Table 18: Amul as a brand |Features of Amul brand |Mean |Median |Mode |Remarks | |Quality |6. 15 |6 |6 |Strongly Agree | |Fair Price |6. 08 |6 |6 |Strongly Agree | |Value for money |5. 93 |6 |6 |Strongly Agree | |Amul market leader |5. 5 |6 |6 |Strongly agree | |Availability of product |5. 59 |6 |5 |Strongly Agree | |Big company entry |4. 2 |4 |4 |Don’t agree | |Amul fit into sports nutrition |5. 3 |5 |5 |Somewhat agree | |Amul capability |5. 28 |5 |5 |Somewhat agree | |Existing Distribution/Branding |4. 53 |5 |6 |Somewhat agree | From above table it is evident that most of the consumers strongly agreed that Amul is known for its quality, value for money, fair price, and availability of products. Amul can become market leader is well accepted by the consumers. However the challenge lies in fitting the Amul brand into sports nutrition and identifying suitable distribution channels for such products. The consumers also hinted that by creating awareness this problem could be sorted out 2. Market entry strategy for Amul It has already been identified that the whey business is highly lucrative both as a commodity and in mass market. However sustenance of profitability with less risk lies in mass market. Amul should take the advantage of being the first mover into this category in India . It can leverage upon its brand. The market entry will include following marketing decisions: †¢ Market segment †¢ Target customers †¢ Positioning †¢ Product, Price, Place and Promotion related decisions. 12. 1 Market segmentation: The market for these products i. e. Non-Pharma Protein Supplements (N-PPS) and Sports and Fitness drinks (SFD) could be segmented on the basis of age, location, lifestyle, income, household category etc. The segmentation for N-PPS has been shown in the following table. Table 19:Market segmentation for N-PPS [pic] Similarly the segmentation for SFD consumers could be done as follows. Table 20: Market segmentation for SFD. Age group |15-30 yrs for sports drinks,30-60 yrs for Fitness drinks | |Sex |Male/female, mainly male | |Place |Urban | |Profession |Upper middle class, Rich class | |Occupation of the head of the family |Middle to senior executives, Professionals | |Household category |A1,A2 | |Clothes and sports |Reputed, branded, s porty | |Culture |Westernization | 12. 2. Target segment This is very important as it gives idea about those customers which have maximum potential to purchase these products. To accurately identify the target customers for N-PPS, Discriminant analysis (see below) was done . The results show that those customers who have very high Value for Money (VFM) are most likely to buy these products. So the target customers for N-PPS will be 20-25 years old, gym- goer males. [pic][pic] Eigen value, Wild’s Lambda and significance were 0. 71, 0. 58 and 0. 00 respectively which shows that the model is robust. Here 1 and 2 signify those customers who will buy and will not buy Amul products respectively. Initially the target customers for SFD will be high income category gym going p

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Resouce Management Unit 5004 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Resouce Management Unit 5004 - Essay Example Resource management is a key element to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. Both are essential components of a comprehensive project management plan to execute and monitor a project successfully. As is the case with the larger discipline of project management, there are resource management software tools available that automate and assist the process of resource allocation to projects and portfolio resource visibility including supply and demand of resources. This unit is about the generic principles, methods and techniques for planning, managing and analyzing the use of any and all resources available to the manager. This includes physical, financial and human resources, and the factors affecting their use - organizational, legal, ethical and environmental.The main purpose of this unit is to manage non- financial resource and manage financial resources.. Management is about getting thing done by other through the resources such as people equipment and materials. So these resources should be utilized to the maximum to achieve the objectives. Managers are responsible for planning, organizing leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and using all the organizational resources to achieve organizational objectives. So the need to achieve the goals from this optimum resource arose. The need for operations managers to reduce manufacturing costs, optimize productivity and improve product quality in order to stay in the market has become imperative. Operations management is the management of direct resources such as machine, material and manpower which are required to produce goods and services. It involves planning, operating, controlling, directing and coordinating all the activities of production systems, which convert resource inputs into services. The transformation process helps the operation manager an immediate sens e of the importance of having the right resources in place whenever required. In most of the private sector companies outputs are given more importance than inputs. 1.2 Explain the process of planning resource use to achieve the objectives Planning process The strength and weakness has to cover the organization's products or services, people, resources and should examine the structure of the organization and ability of the organization to cope with the change. Market segment analysis is the useful technique for looking at products or services as it focuses its attention on markets and their potential. Different factors are considered for each market segment. The market segment analysis covers market share, profitability, reliance on segment, geographic spread, size, skills, market emphasis, and style and future intentions. Planning processes is important in an organization for the following reasons Extension organizations have too few financial resources, given the nature and size of their missions and many of them doesn't know to use in an appropriate manner Managers and other staff members do not know how many resources are available for use in dealing with a particular problem or program activity. Many of them do not know the costs of carrying out various activities or whether a particular approach is a cost-effective way to deliver programming. Money may be committed almost totally to salaries, leaving little to cover operating and other costs. Financial allocation decisions are made by people who are not in a

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Were the policies followed at the beginning of Reconstruction the best Essay

Were the policies followed at the beginning of Reconstruction the best possible course of action for the United states - Essay Example This essay has examined the extent that policies followed at the beginning of Reconstruction were the best possible courses of action for the United States. In this context of understanding it’s demonstrated that the United States enacted varying degrees of policies that considered the reintegration of southern states into the Union, as well as civil rights policies that aided African Americans. While there are varying degrees of effectiveness in these policies, it’s clear that in large part the inclusive stance adopted by the American government was successful. In addition, while the government was lax in allowing for oppressive social policies, to a degree they had to adopt this stance because of the divided socio-cultural Reconstruction climate. There were a variety of Reconstruction plans that emerged in the wake of the Civil War, each with varying degrees of stringency. The first and perhaps most influential reconstruction policy was Lincoln’s 10% Plan. This plan was lenient in that if a Confederate supporter took an oath to support the Union they received a pardon. In addition, if a state had 1/10 of their voting population support the Union, they were allowed back into it. Lincoln’s plan was generally effective in that it placed limited requirements on reentry into the Union. Still, other policies placed more restrictive measures. For instance, the Wade-Davis bill necessitated that if a majority of voters took an ‘iron clad’ oath to support the United States Constitution, then a new state convention would be held. Similarly, in this policy, anyone who had the rank of Colonel or high in the Confederacy could not become a United States citizen again. In large part these policies created a general state of discontentment and distrust in the South, as they believed that were being unfairly punished. After Lincoln’s assassination, Andrew John assumed the Presidency. While Johnson had previously favored restrictive reconstruction policies, upon assuming office his reconstruction plan pardoned all individuals unless they had over $20,000; he also indicated that Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana had fulfilled Lincoln’s 10% plan. Similar to Lincoln’s, these reconstruction policies were successful largely for their inclusive nature. Major debates emerged in terms of the extent that states should be readmitted into the Union and once again receive representation. It’s been noted that the overriding perspective on this matter was that â€Å"inasmuch as the lately insurgent States had no legal right to separate themselves from the Union, they still retain their positions as States, and consequently the people thereof have a right to immediate re presentation in Congress without the imposition of any conditions whatever† (‘odur’). A number of individuals voiced dissent to this perspective, arguing that as these states ceded from the Union with ease there should be substantial consideration in allowing them to rejoin the Union. Even as these are valid perspectives, it’s clear that encouraging an atmosphere of inclusivity was the most appropriate Reconstruction policy. In these regards, one considers that to a great degree the United States was experiencing a period of significant strife and division and it was necessary to create a period of goodwill and acceptance that would restore the Union. There are also a number of significant historical occurrences to the efficacy of this policy. Perhaps most notable is the understanding that the United States was founded on the right to representation and that withholding this from states would have run counter to core American values. One also considers the hardline stance that Europe and the United States took towards Germany in the period proceeding World War I, leading to much of the negative sentiment that fueled World War II. In addition to broad ranging policies that considered the nature of reintegration into the Union, some of the most prominent Reconstruction po

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

China Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

China - Essay Example This started a continuing era of growth that is assessed periodically. Although the country strives for the economic growth there are factors that limit China's full economic growth. One factor that can be considered as the most influential cause of this state is the lack for political reform. Achieving the results that are aimed for such as the rapid economic growth requires the interplay of the different aspects in the nation most especially in governance. The process of launching this economic development requires changes both in the internal and the external factors. The external dynamics of economic growth includes the relation to other countries in terms of marketing products and other commercial transactions and trade. Internal factors on the other hand are lead by the reforms in the different aspects of the nation which is accompanied by the development in the government as well ("China: The four modernization"; Polonsky, Pucko, Warner, and Zhu). Through the development of China and its advancement in terms of the economic aspect, it can be viewed that there is an absence in the reform in the government. This is due the fact that China is socialist country that operates through a one party rule. This aspect had brought about both advantages and disadvantages to the nation. It can be viewed that through the success of China not only the economy of the nation but also the success of different businesses, it has not yet achieved its full potentials due to the fact that the people are working for the growth of the nation which even through hard work remains to be barely felt. This is the case for countries that operates a socialist form of government. In this from of government the people have common properties and works for the welfare of the nation and not for their own success. The government of China though has no plan of modifying already established political structure. This can be determined through the fact that through the alterations and development that was undertaken in the different aspects of the nation, any of the aspect of governance was not modified. China even promoted that their form of government is a unique feature in the economic success that was being experienced in the nation. This distinctive characteristic is comparable to the nations that have shifted from a socialist for of government to be able to better incorporate the economic development that is required for the growth of the nation. These include former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern European countries (Polonsky, Pucko, Warner, and Zhu). The lack of political reform has brought about problems in the different aspects of the nation. This is due to the fact that synthesizing the socialist form of government with the economic policies can be contradicting and affects the nation as a whole. One of the most affective factors in the process is in relation to the success that can be experience by individuals in a non-socialist country that has attained an economic growth that was achieved by China. This causes a conflict within the beliefs of the individuals who can feel just the minimal effect of the country's economic success. In this case the government can face a problem with discontentment of the people. For this matter, the leaders provide the nation with motivations on nationalism. That it is the success of the whole nation that they

Monday, August 26, 2019

Critically explore the risks, challenges and key issues in relation to Essay - 1

Critically explore the risks, challenges and key issues in relation to starting up a new restaurant in Cardiff Bay in light of the current economic climate in the UK 01312 - Essay Example Resultantly, UK is considered as fruitful economy for businesses due its supporting business environment. The country is also attracting FDI for numerous sectors including food and beverages (Institute of Foreign Economy, NDRC, 2014). Also, According to PWC (2015), Europe including UK attracted around 22 million more tourists in 2014 than 2013. Cardiff Bay, the mining valley holds the status of world’ first industrialized city (Cardiff Caerdydd, N.d) and 10th largest UK city but remained underprivileged for centuries due to ignorance by authorities. With this scenario at affect, role of SME’s increase massively in Cardiff Bay as the economy is then dependent on small and medium enterprises. The last two decades witnessed the adventurous growth events and developments in the Cardiff Bay region. As reported, from 1000 registered buildings 547 are of food businesses including bar, cafà © and restaurants in Cardiff Bay (Ruddick, 2012). Hence, role of hospitality industry is wide in SME in Cardiff Bay region. Hence, with these factors at affect the paper reviews the challenges and issues that starting a new venture of restaurant in Cardiff Bay will be faced with. Honig and Samuelsson, (2011) empirically researched the effectiveness of planning and discussed the factors and viability of planning to enter in a business. Different factors in Cardiff Bay contribute in the importance of business planning. The potential population growth and changing lifestyle are promising measures for services business industry in the region (Cardiff Caerdydd, N.d). Cardiff Bay attracts around 18 million visitors a year till 2012. Though, the region still needs huge reforms but critics have positive anticipations. The lack in connectivity, infrastructure and funding measures, increasing unemployment rates and strong ethnic values that cannot be easily changed all also factors that must be considered before developing business

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Asperger's syndrome and how it affects the developing child Research Paper

Asperger's syndrome and how it affects the developing child - Research Paper Example Asperger’s Syndrome is one of a group of neurological disorders. This is a group of five closely –related disorders which also include Autistic Disorder, Pervasive developmental Disorder not otherwise specified, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Rett’s Disorder. All these disorders as Phetraswan, Miles and Mesibov (2009) explain have atypical patterns of development that affect multiple areas of functioning. These five disorders have some very similar symptoms that make it difficult sometimes to distinguish between them. This is especially so for Autism Disorder and Asperger’s Disorder which are sometimes confused for each other. Some describe Asperger’s Disorder as high functioning Autism Disorder. The terms are not always used with definite distinction made between Autism Disorder and Asperger’s Disorder and they are discussed together as Autism Spectrum Disorder where Asperger’s Disorder is included in the discussion. However it is important to distinguish between these two and know the subtle differences. Generally Asperger’s Disorder displays less severe autistic behavior. There is a more subtle impairment of language; there is not the delay in language development that is commonly seen in Autism Disorder. Also there may not be any cognitive delays; children with Asperger’s Disorder have normal IQs. The major characteristics of Asperger’s Disorder are social impairment and patterned, repetitive and focused behavior. Typically children with Asperger’s Disorder have underdeveloped social skills. This is manifested in their difficulty in forming friendships and relating to peers. Gibbons and Goins (2008) describe it as a â€Å"lack of understanding of social cues, which may lead to difficulty understanding the purpose of social interactions†. These authors go on to explain some of the other characteristics of Asperger’s Disorder or the difficulties

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Contract Administration and Change Issues Term Paper

Contract Administration and Change Issues - Term Paper Example This is significant as it gives them the right to deal with contract changes as they deem them appropriate. They also approve the use of experts. Additionally, the right to terminate contracts reduces chances of conflicts and lawsuits where there is the likelihood of disagreement. Government contracting binds the terms of the contract between the contractors and the contracting officers as employees of the government, contracting officers and administrators ensure that contracts are run smoothly as per the agreed terms, while at the same time safeguarding the interests of America (Department of State Foreign Affairs, 2012). The officers and administrators ensure that funds are available for procurement and contract activities. GAO investigated the department of energy due to the high costs involved in them. With the responsibility of ensuring that there is adequate use of resources, with calls for lower government spending, then effective monitoring of costs achieves this purpose. Contract schedules identify the activities to be carried out in the contract agreement; it spells out the time for the completion of the activities in a chronological order. Adequate allocation of the available resources is also required to avoid unnecessary delays in contract implementation. Contract activities are then linked together to produce the overall schedule of activities, this, ensures that there is no duplication of activities. Another essential part is estimating the shortest time in which the contract can be completed; this follows the individual time of the activities. There is a need for analysis of the risk factors inherent in the contract, which may delay its completion. An improvement of the methods used in scheduling leads to a better estimate of the time required and the cost involved. Revenue flows can be better projected using the time

Friday, August 23, 2019

Suture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Suture - Essay Example Suture was a neo-noir film of 1993 directed by David Seigel and Scott McGehee and it features actors Mel Harris and Dennis Haysbert. On that note, the photographic image both constructs the character’s identity and undermines the identity for the film viewers in several ways. For example, after Vincent Towers kills his father, he decides to fake his death (Grieveson & Wasson 98). Similarly, he attempts to murder his half-brother, Clay Arlington acted by Dennis Haysbert as a mechanism to change identities. This aspect helps in establishing the photographic image traits of Vincent in the context of the cinematic disparities. From the movie, we see that Vincent is white while his identical brother who is forced to suffer amnesia after a bomb to protect him is black. This incident supports the Apparatus theory that insists that, by nature, cinema is driven by ideological mechanics. Therefore, this is apparent because through the Lacan’s Mirror Stage effect that expounds on the value of self-identity and consciousness. On that note, while there is an element of a photographic image construction, there is also distortion of identity for the film viewers. For example, when Clay loses his memory and suffers amnesia, Dr. Renee Descartes attempts to quicken his recovery but his brothers comes back to kill him again. This results in the murder of Vincent Towers instead of his half-brother thus prompting Clay to adopt a, genuine permanent, identity (Chaudhuri 83). This decision affects most film viewers because it does not concur with Lancan’s notion of the Mirror stage that insists on self-identity and consciousness. Alternatively, there is a way in which the strategy of dis-identification in Suture undermines what Laura Mulvey calls the normative ‘visual pleasure’ of the film spectator. For example, Laura expounds on three different techniques of viewing a film that entail watching as the camera records the real events of the film, watch ing the film and interaction of characters in the film. Therefore, as observed in Suture the loss of identification of Vincent Towers who fakes himself is manifest of the violation of the visual pleasure. Similarly, the loss of Clay Arlington’s memory after suffering amnesia prevents the film spectator from interacting with the main characters in the film because of lost identity. In addition, the themes of betrayal and denial that are espoused by the main characters are an indication of the manipulation of the normative ‘visual pleasure’ fronted by Laura Mulvey in her essay (Grieveson & Wasson 109). Furthermore, after the recovery of his lost memory with the help of Dr. Max Shinoda, Clay is undecided on how dispose of one of his identities. This continues to complicate the aspect of ‘visual pleasure’ because the film spectator is denied the chance to think on the loss and recovery of identity. Therefore, because Suture takes away pleasure, there is a social function concerning race and class that is at work in the film. For example, Vincent Towers is a white who murdered his brother but tries to cover up using his black brother, Clay Arlington. This is an example of the disparity of racial boundaries because a white brother compels his black brother to suffer in order to get away with crime. On the same length, there is a determination by Vincent Towers to murder his

Research paper onAutism-- pathophysiology and diagnostic tests Essay

Research paper onAutism-- pathophysiology and diagnostic tests - Essay Example Autism is a life-long developmental disorder affecting as many as 1 in 500 children. The causes for this profound disorder are largely unknown (White). Several pathophysiological conditions are responsible to cause autism, and one of them is Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). HGF is a polypeptide growth factor which acts by binding to the MET tyrosine kinase receptor. HGF influences the growth, motility and morphogenesis of various epithelial and endothelial cells and functions as a trophic factor for organ regeneration. Accumulating evidence suggest that HGF and its receptor MET play a role in neuronal cell development. First, HGF and its receptor MET are widely expressed in the developing and mature mouse brain, with expression beginning as early as embryonic day 12 (E12) and E13, respectively Second, HGF promotes the migration of cortical interneurons from the ventral to the dorsal telencephalon in rodents,and HGF-MET signaling systems are implicated in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of cerebellar granule cells. Furthermore, HGF plays a role in regulating the morphology of cortical pyramidal dendrites in the early postnatal period, and endogenous levels of HGF are necessary for the normal development of these neurons. Taken together, these findings Sugihara et al., 2007 suggested that HGF may be a candidate for mediating interneuron development in vivo. In this study, these researchers studied whether serum HGF levels in subjects with high-functioning autism are altered as compared with age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, they also examined the relationship between serum HGF levels and clinical symptoms in subjects with autism. The findings suggested that disruption of the HGF-MET signaling systems results in complex alterations in GABAergic interneuron development in the forebrain. Taken together, it is likely that decreased HGF levels may be

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Time immemorial Essay Example for Free

Time immemorial Essay In so many premises, we use and hear the phrase, â€Å"from time immemorial † This ideas somehow reveals that time is something which gives an event a basis before it can be said it has taken into place. But along with the passage of the so called â€Å"time† many sages have still never ended their different theses about the existence of time. Is time real? Can time exist even when nothing happens? Aristotle who was the very first philosopher to start the quest about time attached time to the movement of â€Å"objects† from before to after. He maintained the time was divisible and infinite and that it was necessary to measure motion. His idea on the existence of time was supported by Newton’s theory that time and God really exist and that every physical thing is kept in a container of infinite size and that â€Å"time is something that passes uniformly without regard to whatever happens in the world†. Augustine’s insinuation that â€Å"all is at once in the present and that what is seen now do not exist yet but it must in the future only implies that time is a matter of simultaneity and exist within a space. He asserts that we can say that time is long only because it constitutes successive movements. On the other hand, Einstein purports that time is but a virtual entity, a fourth dimension which cannot be grasped but just experienced. This conception is what Kant also claims, that â€Å"time is only a form of human inner sense that enables us to understand space and objects† and therefore time is not â€Å"real,† but only a mental experience that enables us to understand the real world around us. Therefore, time, which is measured by physical time (clock) empirically exists but transcendentally real. â€Å"It is but a human intuition of measuring changes that take place in a certain space. † It is something which we experience, for events are within the context of time. Even if something happens or not, still time elapses because it encompasses events and change, from before to after, from past to present, and from the perceived to its realization. Woks Cited: Johnson, Zachary. (Apri 28, 1999). Kant. Retrived May 4, 2008 from http://www.afn.org/~afn31396/Kant_essay.html

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Analytical Review Of From Out Of The Shadows History Essay

Analytical Review Of From Out Of The Shadows History Essay From Out of the Shadows is a study of Mexican women, who had migrated to America before the World Wars, their struggles and achievements. Vicki L. Ruiz is a professor of History and Chicano/Latino studies , University of California and has authored a number of books including the well known book Cannery Women, Cannery Lives. Vicki L. Ruiz exposes the strife the Mexican women had to face after crossing the border early in the century. The book tells us about the endeavors of these courageous and enterprising women and the society they helped to build in an alien land, quite often under hostile conditions. In her book she writes From Out of the Shadows focuses on the claiming of personal and public spaces across generations (Ruiz, xi). Ruiz was motivated to chronicle this aspect of American history by the stories she heard as a child from her mother and grand-mother. Her imagination was kindled by the images of village life, the difficult living conditions and the discrimination women faced in those days. From Out of the Shadows also emphasizes the different types of political activism in which the Mexican-American women participated and created public awareness, which included fighting for the cause of civil rights and organized protests against the Vietnam War. For a newer edition of this book, Ruiz has added a preface that carries on the story of the Mexican womens experience in America and traces the growth of Latino history. The book describes the first exodus of women crossing the border from Mexico to California seeking refuge from tyrannical husbands or in search of a better life earlier on in the century. Over one million Mexican men and women migrated al otro lado between 1910 and 1930 (Ruiz: 6) Ruiz throws light on the effort made by protestant groups in an attempt to Americanize the Mexicans but whose efforts generally failed because the Mexican women relied on their own community groups like the rural community groups, religious groups and labor unions to help them absorb into mainstream American society. The book talks about the conflict that arose between mothers and daughters when the daughters were forbidden to use makeup and the mothers insisted that teenage girls attend a dance or go for social outings like movies with a chaperone. What this book reveals is a portrayal of a distinct culture in America, one that has slowly gained momentum and richness in the past several years. From Out of the Shadows is a significant contribution to the largely unrecorded and undocumented history of Mexican-American women. She has chosen to integrate the cultural diversity based on gender, class, region and generational experiences. She has used a variety of sources in her research such as records of census, journals and scholarly texts. In the introduction, Ruiz tells her readers that Mexican women have made history, no matter what their occupations. However, somehow their tales have remained in the shadows (Ruiz xi). In her work, Ruiz has tried to address the issues of interpreting these unheard voices and defining strength within individuals, families and communities. Conventionally the history of America has focused on the Northern European immigrants and their progeny as the settlers in a male dominated, capitalist society. In her writing, Ruiz demonstrates the hardships the Mexican women faced in their journey to become a part of the American community. Ruiz draws upon the lives of women, their dreams, aspirations and decisions and gives these issues a platform. She examines the influx of Mexican women into the States before World War II. Her writing also illustrates their responses to the pressures and challenges of adjusting to the newly forming American culture and Americanization of society in general. The women had to live with altered social values during the inter-war period and the end of young Mexican American women who took to chaperoning. The increasing political and social activism of Mexican women and their role in resisting financial oppression as well as their espousal of the cause of feminism through the 1960s and 70s has been faithfully chronicled in the pages of this book. As yet not much has been documented and published about the activities and importance of Mexican women in twentieth century America. In that perspective this book may be considered as a pioneering attempt to record the contribution of Mexican women in building a multicultural American society. The book is full of interesting anecdotes and tales of how the women struggled to make sense of an alien world, into which they had migrated, and of their efforts to make their lives and of those around them meaningful. The thoughtful way in which personal interviews of Mexican women with very long memories and lots of stories to tell, adds poignancy to the text. The narrative increases the readers admiration for the courage and doggedness displayed by these women in their struggle to realize their rights and for a chance to get equal opportunities, work and wages. To present an unbiased analysis of the book one must draw attention towards some of the draw backs in the book as well. While this is a monumental effort to chronicle the contribution of Mexican women and the integration of Latino people to the American society it becomes hard to comprehend the frequent use of jargon that impacts the flow of the narrative. In portions the author becomes too involved in the account and loses sense objectivity and neutral research. Ruiz, however, admits that she has written from the heart (p.xii) and this kind of impassioned approach may appeal to a good many of her readers. Readers looking at this book as a traditional source of historical data may find this approach subjective and a bit unconventional. It must be emphasized here that the data collected and recorded in this book is of great importance to students of American history and to all those generations of Mexican-American people who have now become assimilated in the multicultural American so ciety. The book will find a ready readership amongst scholars in who are taking courses or researching in the areas of Diaspora, immigration and ethnic studies. It is also an asset for teachers who have to teach courses in this filed. This book is of special interest to women all over the world and to anyone who wishes to learn about the Mexican settlers in America and the contribution Mexican-American women have made to the development, organization and sustenance of Latino culture in the American society. Through the pages of this book Vicki Ruiz has truly rescued the Mexican- American woman and drawn them From Out of the Shadows. Work Cited: Ruiz, V.L. 2008. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth Century America. New York: Oxford University Press. Print. .

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

A Report On Technological Development Sport Essay

A Report On Technological Development Sport Essay Technological development is becoming more and more essential in spot competition. Technological development refers to the development of techniques or appliance which can improve the quality and magnificence of the sport competitions. However, there could be some difference between different countries; it may depend on the level of the countries development. There are three main aspects revealing that technological development has revolutionized sport competitions. Firstly, the development of telecommunications promotes the globalization of sport competition. Secondly, the use of electronic appliance helps to reduce controversy and ensure the fairness of the results in the competition, such as auto-timing system. Moreover, the improvement sport equipments and analyzing system has become necessary for enhancing the performance of athletes. Firstly, one of the most dramatic revolutions in sport completion is caused by the developments in new technologies of mass communication, especially the development of Internet and satellite television, which are allowing the sport competitions to be publicized around the world much more quickly. As an example, mega-events such as the Olympic Games can be regarded as a media-events (D. Rowe, 2004, 166). According to Roche, the 1936 Berlin Olympics was the first Olympic Games to be radio broadcast to the world; and it was also the first major sport event to be televised, although it was only available in the city of Berlin at that time due to the limited local cable system. Nowadays, the universality of the Internet and television are most effective to the globalization of the sports competition, however, turning the sport competition into global event. Referring to the television, Horne and Manzenreiter indicate that the estimation of 3.9 billion television audiences had watched par ts of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and 40 billion which are cumulative television audiences, contributing to a increase of 27% over the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. Moreover, Horne and Manzenreiter also indicate the 2002 FIFA World Cup staged in Japan and South Korea, 41000 hours of programming were provided in 213 countries and about 28.8 television audiences of this event, even more than that in Olympic Games. From this situation, there is no doubt that the development of telecommunication provides a much larger stage for the sport competitions, and makes the sport competition become a global history. Secondly, in the sport competitions, the quality of the athletes is the most important factor in determining their performance. Analysing the movements of athletes could be the effective method to increase the possibilities of championship in the sport competitions; for instance, analyzing the movement or posture of an ice-skate athlete could help the athlete to maximize the speed and overcome the shortcomings. However, the details of the movements cannot be easily seen because the unassisted eye functions at the speed of 1/340th of a second exposure time; fortunately, the use of film, cine and video and many other electronic analyzing devices provide the chance to analyze the movements of athletes in a much more detailed version. For instance, as Everett and Trew, who are from the Department of Physiotherapy, have found that the computerized kinetic analysis system can collect reliable three-dimensional data which uses high-resolution cameras to video athletes movements. These data are very useful to enhance athletes performance and also the recovering, as they can show whether the speed is at maximum or not, uncoordinated or smooth. In this case, it could be said that sport competitions are not only about the competition between athletes and also the level of technology between countries. Finally, the auto-timing system is contributing substantially to the revolution of sport competitions. The hand-held stopwatch has been eliminated from the formal or major sport competitions, as it has the absolute limitation on accuracy, because the result will depend on the judges reaction. The article from Australian Academy of science states that the computerize timing systems nowadays can provide the accuracy to less than 0.001 of a second, which is 10 times the requirement of accuracy under the rules, compares to the first electronic quartz timing system in 1964 which can provide the accuracy of 0.01 of a second. Furthermore, when the vertical line-scanning video system was introduced in 1991, human judgment and error were totally removed in the competitions; the video image of each athlete will be shown when they cross the finished line, at the same time, the timing system will record each athletes result.

Monday, August 19, 2019

personal narrative Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Growing up as an only child I made out pretty well. You almost can’t help but be spoiled by your parents in some way. And I must admit that I enjoyed it; my own room, T.V., computer, stereo, all the material possessions that I had. But there was one event in my life that would change the way that I looked at these things and realized that you can’t take these things for granted and that’s not what life is about.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When I was seventeen years old and going into my senior year of high school I was given the opportunity to go on a trip to Spain with my school. It was a two week trip during the summer, visiting different cities and historical sites throughout the country. While we where there we went to see a Flamenco dance show in Seville which is about an hour and a half outside of Madrid, the city where we were staying. It was a Wednesday around one o’clock when we left and the ride up there was really beautiful. We were driving through the country side passing some small villages on the side of the road. We arrived there around 3:30 and sat down for the show. It was really cool they had all the ladies with their bright dresses and fruit in their hair dance around while we ate lunch. And the show ended around five and we started to head home. On the way home we were driving through the countryside along side a small village when all of a sudden we heard a loud bang and the bus started slowing down. After a couple of ...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee :: To Kill a Mockingbird Essays

Scout Finch is not the stereotypical girl from the 1930’s. Agents the wishes of everyone around her, she grows up in overalls instead of dresses. Scout plays in the dirt and sand, instead of in the kitchen. In the novel To Kill a Mocking Bird, by Harper Lee, Scout is the wild spirited narrator, growing up in the small town of Maycomb. As she gets older, she learns mostly from her father Atticus how to interact with people. Scout learns to show dignity and respect to everyone, under any circumstances.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the beginning of the novel, the reader finds that Scout Finch is not the most peaceful girl. She fights boys quite often, and never backs down from a fight. One day Cecil Jacobs approached Scout and was taunting her because her father is â€Å"defending niggers†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I drew a beam on him, remembered what Atticus had said, then dropped my fists and walked away.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It was not until Atticus had told Scout not to fight on his behalf, that Scout found the courage inside her to walk away. Her actions here show her respect for Atticus, and her dignity. She realizes now that fighting is not always the best way for her to solve her problems. Even after all the kids were calling her a coward, she had enough dignity to follow her father’s wishes and not fight.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Boo Radly often became the target of the children’s taunting. Scout had a set image of Boo in her head as a blood stained squirrel eater, even though she had never so much as seen him. That changed as she grew up.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"When we were small, Jem and I confined our activities to the southern neighborhood, but when I was well into the second grade taunting Boo Radly became passà ©.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As Scout grows, she starts to see Boo as a person, as apposed to some sort of an evil creature. By stopping her games, and the tormenting of Boo, she shows respect for him and shows dignity in herself.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Near the end of the novel, a mob of men from the town gather in front of the jail to lynch Tom Robinson. To there surprise Atticus is waiting there for them. Later Scout, Jem and Dill joined them. This was a very awkward situation for everyone there, and Scout tried to ease the tension by starting conversation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Atticus had said it was the polite thing to talk to people about what they are interested in, not about what you are interested in.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Automotive industry Essay

Maruti Suzuki India Limited generally famous as Maruti is an ancillary company of the Japanese automaker Suzuki Motor Corporation. It has a market share of 44.9% of the Indian passenger car market as of March 2011. Maruti 800 and Alto are their entry level cars. Ritz, A-Star, Swift, Wagon-R, Estilo are their hatch back models. DZire & SX4 are Maruti’s Sedan class models. Eeco and Ertiga are Maruti’s C segment class. Grand Vitara is their Sports Utility Vehicle which is directly imported from Japan. Maruti is the 1st company in India to turn out and sell more than a million cars. Maruti Udyog Limited is renamed as Maruti Suzuki India Ltd on 17th September 2007. Maruti companies head quarter is in Nelson Mandela Road, New  Delhi. The company was customary in 1989; however the actual production commenced in 1983 with their Maruti 800. Till 2004 Maruti 800 was the India’s largest selling packed in car ever, since it was launched in 1983. More than a million units of this car have been sold worldwide so far. Maruti imports diesel engines for all their diesel cars from Fiat motors. Maruti’s manufacturing plants are located at two amenities Gurgoan and Manesar south of Delhi. Gurgoan plants installed capacity is of 9, 00,000 units per annum and Manesar plant with a capacity of 5, 00,000 units per year and a diesel plant with an annual capacity of 1, 00,000 engines and transmissions. Maruti has 933 dealerships crossways 666 towns and cities in all states and union territories of India with 2,946 service stations (inclusive of dealer workshops and Maruti Authorised Service Stations) in 1,395 towns and cities all over India. It has 30 Express Service Stations on 30 National Highways across 1,314 cities in India. Service is a major source of proceeds to the company. Most of the service stations help many stranded vehicles on the highways by sending across their repair man to the vehicle. 1.2 Definition Of Marketing According to American Marketing Association (AMA) Board of Directors, Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value of customers, clients, partners, and society at large. Dr. Philip Kotler defines, marketing as â€Å"the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit. Marketing identifies unfulfilled needs and desires. It defines measures and quantifies the size of the identified market and the profit potential. It pinpoints which segments the company is capable of serving best and it designs and promotes the appropriate products and services†. 1.3 Customer Perceived Value Customer Perceived Value (CPV) is the distinction between the prospective customer’s evaluation of all the benefits and all the costs of an offering and the perceived alternatives. 1.3.1 Customer Perceived Value of Maruti Suzuki with reference to Holbrook Model Typology of Customer Value Holbrook (1994 p. 27) asserted â€Å"Value is an interactive relativistic preference experience†. Based on this Holbrook proposed a typology of consumer value having three different dimensions: Extrinsic/Intrinsic: The consumer perceives value in using or owning a product or services as a means to and end versus an end in itself. Self-oriented/Other-oriented: The consumer perceives value for the consumer’s own benefit as against the benefit of others. Active/Reactive: The customer perceives value through direct use of an object as against apprehending, appreciating or responding to an object. These three dimensions give rise to eight types of customer value Extrinsic Intrinsic Self-oriented Active Efficiency Play Reactive Excellence Aesthetics Other-oriented Active Status Ethics Reactive Esteem Spirituality Thus for a company like Maruti it would be very apt to use this model considering that the products that Maruti Suzuki has to offer fits in quite easily in different dimensions as presented in the typology. 1.3.2 Customer Perceived Value of Maruti Suzuki with reference to Monroe Model Monroe (1990, p. 46) observes, â€Å"Buyers perceptions of value represent a trade-off between the quality or benefits they perceive in the product relative to the sacrifice they perceived by paying the price† Monroe has expressed the concept of customer perceived value as the ratio between perceived benefits and perceived sacrifice: Customer Perceived Value= Perceived Benefits ________________ Perceived Sacrifice According to Monroe perceived benefits has a positive influence on consumers’ perception of product value at first, and later on it may influence consumers’ purchase intentions. In contrast, perceived sacrifice first has a negative influence on consumers’ perception of product value, and later on it may influence consumers’ purchase intentions. Perceived Benefits Here the benefits include customers’ desired value, e.g., quality (Monroe, 1990). Sacrifices, on the other hand, include monetary (price) (Dodds, et al., 1991) and non-monetary (time, effort) (Cronin, et al., 2000) considerations. Therefore, value includes three key factors: (1) quality, (2) price, and (3) convenience (Lemon, et al., 2001), where convenience is the time and effort expended by the customers (Cronin, et al., 2000) In context to Maruti, the customer’s desired value is the quality of the car and services rendered there off. Whereas the sacrifices include the price of the car, maintenance cost, etc. 1.3.3 Customer Perceived Value of Maruti with reference to Woodruff’s Model A Value-Hierarchy Model Woodruff (1997) proposed that â€Å"Customer value is a customer’s perceived preference for and evaluation of those product attributes, attribute performances and consequences arising from use that facilities achieving the customer goals and purposes in use situations.† (p146) Accordingly the customer value hierarchy suggests that customers conceive of desired value in a means-end way. Basically it can be known as a system to run businesses throughout the country by understanding customer’s goal and satisfaction over it (Lister, n.d.) Desired Customer Customer Satisfaction Value with Received Value Customer’s Goals and Purposes Desired Consequences in Use Situations Desired Product Attributes and Attribute Preferences Starting at the bottom of the hierarchy, customers start to think about products as bundles of specific attributes and attribute performances. While purchasing and using a product they form desire or preferences for a certain attribute based on their ability to facilitate achieving desired consequence experiences. Looking down the hierarchy from the top, customers use goals and preferences to attach importance to consequences. Also the customer’s use situation plays a critical role in evaluation as well as in desires. Maruti Suzuki, being an automobile manufacturing company faces a lot of competition. Thus such a model would be very essential for their company. 1.3.4 Consumer perceived value of Maruti with reference to Zeithaml Model Means-End Model An adaptation of a model first proposed by Dodds and Monroe (1985), Zeithaml with her study in 1988 about price, quality and value towards consumers defined this into the concept of Means-End model. (Source: Means-End Model, Zeithaml, 1988) 2. Value Proposition Definition of ‘Value Proposition’ A business or marketing speech that summarizes why a customer should buy an item for consumption or use a service. This statement should prove a potential buyer that one meticulous product or service will add more value or better solve a problem than other like offerings. Companies use this statement to target customers who will benefit most from using the company’s products, and this helps maintain an economic moat. The ideal value proposition is concise and appeals to the customer’s strongest decision-making drivers. Companies pay a high price when customers lose slight of the company’s value proposition. 2.1 Value Proposition of Maruti Suzuki ‘Way of Life’ is the Value Proposition of Maruti Suzuki. As India is a country where comfort is vital while travelling, Maruti has always been the first option. As mileage is a big criterion with cars for Indians, Suzuki proves to be better than quite a few other names in cars as its vehicles have a higher mileage; for example Swift gives 22km/ltr while if you compare a Honda City gives around 12-13 km/litre. 2.2 Mission & Vision of Maruti Suzuki The Company Mission To make available a wide range of modern, high quality fuel efficient vehicles in order to meet the need of different customers, both in domestic and export markets. The Company Vision We must be an internationally competitive company in terms of our products and services. We must retain our leadership in India and should also aspire to be among the global players. Their focus is on: Building a continuously improving organization adaptable to quick changes Providing value and satisfaction to the customer Aligning and fully involving all our employees, suppliers and dealers to face competition Maximising Shareholder’s value 2.3 Target Market Definition of target market: A specific group of consumers at which a company aims its products and services. Maruti Suzuki has adopted a focused approach and wisely created segments within a large market to promote their cars. Lower Income Group- Maruti 800, Alto  Middle Income Group- Wagon-R, Swift, Swift DZire, Ritz High Income Group- Maruti Suzuki Kizashi, Suzuki Grand Vitara Suzuki Grand Vitara would obviously have no takers amongst the lower income group. 2.4 Market Attractiveness Market attractiveness is a term that describes the profit possibilities available in a given market or industry. The more attractive a market is, the higher the potential profits. Companies in the process of considering entires into new industries or markets conduct a number of analyses to determine whether or not such a move would be good for the business. One such analysis is a market attractiveness analysis, conducted to find out if entering a particular market or industry would be profitable and how much the company could potentially earn. The automobile industry is a huge and diversified market. It can be divided into different segments each satisfying different needs of the customers. These different segments can be classified as: SUV’s, Sedans, Hatchbacks, C segments etc. This gives an automobile company ample amount of opportunities. Maruti Suzuki  is prevalent in all of these segments and is considered as one of the premium brands in all of these segments. In this very market other than the different segments of automobiles also is the service rendered by the company to the customers. Thus the market is as attractive as one would hope for giving Maruti Suzuki a chance to make the most of it.