Saturday, December 28, 2019
The Importance of Writing Skills in the Workplace What are the words you write revealing about you? Are they saying I am a well educated and smart business person or are they screaming that I am an ignoramus? The way you write reveals so much about you and your business skills. Your writing tells the reader about your educational background, whether you have pride in your work and your level of business expertise. Any company with employees who write clearly and concisely has a competitive edge over other companies whose employees are still struggling to communicate. The lack of good writing skills in the business place can lead to excessive turnovers, loss of profits and high costs unless remedies are established. In ourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many managers are unaware of the legal liability that e-mail plays in our courtrooms. Some ways that companies can avoid litigations in court are; writing with accuracy and precision, know your topic, be consistent, and avoid negative c omments. Recently, General Motors was hit with a $4.9 billion verdict. That verdict was based largely upon an internal memo. One researcher reports in Every Word Counts from Patricia S Eyres concludes, Ã¢â¬Å"the fact is that during a trial, the courts will review and analyze everything from informal memos to performance appraisals to marketing plans, all of which may be turned against the companyÃ¢â¬ (80). Another high cost for businesses today is illiteracy. Per this quotation, Ã¢â¬Å"the U.S. Department of Labor estimates that illiteracy accounts for about $225 billion each year in lost productivityÃ¢â¬ (Donovan E-mail 15). Most companies today donÃ¢â¬â¢t track that cost, however their overall profit will reflect it. Several published articles referenced companies that were hit with heavy penalties relating back to their employees writing skill levels. This cost is needless and unbearable for many companies to carry. Companies are also faced with excessive employee turno ver or loss of manpower. Writing skills should be part of the interview process for most companies. Thereby avoiding numerous turnovers and retraining cost. Several companies are faced with the termination of colleagues due to their writingShow MoreRelatedEssay on Important Writing Skills In The Workplace1896 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Importance of Writing Skills in the Workplace What are the words you write revealing about you? Are they saying I am a well educated and smart business person or are they screaming that I am an ignoramus? The way you write reveals so much about you and your business skills. Your writing tells the reader about your educational background, whether you have pride in your work and your level of business expertise. Any company with employees who write clearly and concisely has a competitiveRead MoreAbsolute Importance Of Professional Communication1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesunimportant skills of grammar into your head day after day? The answer is much simpler than you may think: they are trying to prepare you for future success in life. Proper writing is an absolute necessity for securing a job. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, comprehensive writing and language are skills students need to understand. Jeffery Selingo, author of There is Life After College, pointed out in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Why CanÃ¢â¬â¢t College Graduates Write Cohere nt Prose?Ã¢â¬ the importance and application of proper writing skillsRead MoreEffective Communication For The Workplace950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Someone once said great communication is a skill that is needed in life. I believe great communication can take an individual very far in life. Effective communication helps connect with people. It can open many doors for many jobs. It lets the employer know whom they have hired, and how intelligent the person really is. In the business profession, effective communication enables managers to give understandable instructions to their employees. Effective communication will help state what is expectedRead MoreWorkplace Literacy and Effective Communication1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorkplace Literacy and Effective Communication Recently, there has been a poorly written communication in the workplace, which has led to some hurt feelings, lower morale and possible loss of business. As a corporation, we have worked very hard to maintain the synergy though out our work environment. These latest events are starting to compromise multiple aspects of our company. First, we are losing control and perspective of our colleagues. Camaraderie and atmosphere are suffering, placing usRead MoreEssay about Workplace Literacy and Effective Communication1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Recently, there has been a poorly written communication in the workplace, which has led to some hurt feelings, lower morale and possible loss of business. As a corporation, we have worked very hard to maintain the synergy thoughout our work environment. These latest events are starting to compromise multiple aspects of our company. First, we are loosing control and perspective of our colleagues. Camaraderie and atmosphere are suffering, placing us in jeopardy of destroying our active policies andRead MoreReflection On Simkin Et Al899 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesuniversity students in America greatly lack the necessary writing skills to flourish in the workplace. In their 2012 paper Ã¢â¬Å"Student perceptions of their writing skills,Ã¢â¬ Simkin et al. outlined a variety of possible explanations for these troubling findings. They, however, chose to explore two of the many possible reasons for this rising writing problem: university students may be unaware of the importance of writing skil ls in the workplace or may possess the misconception that they are already goodRead MoreThe Importance of Listening Skills in the Workplace Essay1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages(Eunson 2012:310), argue the importance of listening skills in the workplace. Your analysis should identify three specific listening behaviors and provide examples to demonstrate how these skills promote communication and understanding. Support your analysis with relevant communication theory and evidence from appropriate academic sources. Listening skills play a significant role in evaluating communication capabilities in the workplace throughout the globe. It affects all kinds of interactionsRead More Essential Workplace Skills Essay example1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWorkplace Essential Skills While working or while looking for work there are certain skills sets that are universally important. No matter what job or career path you have chosen these skills make it easier to obtain your goals, whatever they may be. Workplace essential skills enable people at work to do the tasks required by their occupation, give them the basics to learn all other skills (job and life) and assist them to manage and adapt to the changing workplace environment. TheyRead MoreMarketing Analysis : Marketing And Sales Professionals900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesspending 41% of their time writing on the job. - Watson also works in an organization that is staffed by fewer than 50 people, although, he recorded on the survey that only 10% of his time is spent writing on his job. The CIW 2013 Report doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t specifically state what jobs within marketing prove that statistics but, with Watson primarily working with social media, this condenses his writing time. - One interesting finding was that professionals spend 39% of their time writing email, which has not changedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Devil Wears Prada 1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescollege, it is helpful to do as much as you can to improve your skills and get experience in the field. Take high school courses involving the arts, writing, business, and communications. Read books in regards to fashion and the business. Read every fashion magazine edition and keep up with trends and fashion shows. Build your network by blogging and creating social media accounts specifically for fashion. Intern to improve your skills, add experience, and make connections with people in the field
Friday, December 20, 2019
Not in Our Stars, But in Ourselves Ã¢â¬Å"Whose fault? / Whose but his own?Ã¢â¬ is a question that has been raised many times in human history (Milton 3.96). Many authors and poets have tackled the question of why humanity is constantly tested and tempted to sin, and, further, whether humanity has the free will to decide its own fate. After the Reformation of the Catholic church that created Protestantism, the idea of predestination was very popular. Protestant ideology claimed that only a few people were destined to be saved or damned by God, and that only some people will be saved. This created a general anxiety about faith and free will in Renaissance England, leading many to question who was at fault when human beings sin. Two of the most well-known epic poems of the Renaissance era are The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser and Paradise Lost by John Milton. Both poems feature characters that face trials and tribulations, and how the respective poems deal with the trails reveals different ideas about fate, free wi ll, and the idea of being tested. Both poems use temptation relation to female bodies and sexual desire, diverse reactions to falling and failure, and prophecy that contribute to two different ideas about free will and the role of God in the lives of his creations. Female seduction and sexual temptation are featured both in The Faerie Queene and Paradise Lost, but are represented in different ways. In Paradise Lost, Eve leads to the eventual downfall of Adam because sheShow MoreRelatedA Formalistic Reading of John Miltons Lycidas2679 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesJohn Milton is one of the greatest stars in the sky of English literature. He is mostly known because of his well-known masterpiece Ã¢â¬Å"Paradise LostÃ¢â¬ . Though some critics state that Shakespeare was more powerful than him, but making comparison between a playwright whom by the use of his powerful pen became famous and rich, with a literary man who wrote the greatest English epic, is not true and justifiable. My purpose of writing this research paper is to criticize his world-famous elegy Ã¢â¬â LycidasRead MoreElizabethan Era11072 Words Ã |Ã 45 PagesThe Elizabethan Age is the time period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558Ã¢â¬â1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. It was an age considered to be the height of the English Renaissance, and saw the full flowering of English literature and English poetry. In Elizabethan theater, William Shakespeare, among others, composed and staged plays in a variety of settings that broke away from Englands past style of plays. It was an age of expansion and explorationRead MoreIndian English Novel17483 Words Ã |Ã 70 Pagesrevolution against the idiom which the colonial writers followed. Gradually the Indian English authors began employing the techniques of hybrid language, magic realism peppered with native themes. Thus from a post colonial era Indian literature ushered into the modern and th en the post-modern era. The saga of the Indian English novel therefore stands as the tale of Changing tradition, the story of a changing India. The stories were there already in India steeped in folklores, myths, written in umpteen languagesRead MoreIwc1 Literature, Arts and Humanities Essay10028 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesIWC1 Test 1.02 Module Pre-Test Question 1: Multiple Choice The historical revival of Classical culture began during the: a) Middle Ages b) Renaissance c) Baroque Era d) Romantic Era Feedback: The correct answer is b. The historical revival of Classical culture began during the Renaissance. Question 2: Multiple Choice Which of the following was a key feature of ancient Chinese humanism? a) An emphasis on theoretical philosophy. b) A subordination of intellectual life to religiousRead MoreChildrens Literature13219 Words Ã |Ã 53 Pages1. Introduction 3 2. Early History 6 The Greek and Roman Eras: 50 B.C.-A.D. 500 6 The Middle Ages: 500-1500 6 The Renaissance: 1500-1650 7 The Rise of Puritanism and John Locke: Late 1600s 8 3. Beginning of ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literature: Late 1700s 10 4. Fairy and Folk Tales 12 The Golden Age of ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literature: Late 1800s 12 5. Victorian Childrens Literature 16 6. Contemporary Childrens Literature 18 6. Analysis of Harry PottersÃ¢â¬â¢ series 21 7. Conclusion 30 8. Summary 31 ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literature DefinitionsRead MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words Ã |Ã 209 PagesX. XI. XII. XIII. ON THE PICA TRIX I. Introduction to the Picatrix (The Aim of the Sage) of al-Majriti, Maslamati ibn Ahmad Joseph H. Peterson The GhÃ ¢yat al-HakÃ ®m fiÃ¢â¬â¢l-sihr, or Picatrix, as it is known in the West, is an important Arabic magical text. It is perhaps the largest and most comprehensive of the grimoires, or handbooks of magic. The attribution to the Andalusian mathematician al-Majriti (or al-Madjriti) (d. ca. 1004-7) is considered pseudo-epigraphic. The Latin translation datesRead MoreThe Birth of Civilization18947 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesliving built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another. WHY IS Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ considered a defining trait of human beings? CRAIMC01_xxx-031hr.qxp 2/8/11 3:42 PM Page 1 2 behind our ability to create ideas and institutions and to transmit culture from one generation to another. Our flexible and dexterous hands enable us to hold and make tools and so to create the material artifacts of culture. Because culture is learned and not inherited, it permits rapid adaptation to changingRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12166 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesill grandson. Along the way, Phoenix encounters several obstacles and the story becomes a quest for her to overcome the trials she faces, which mirror her plight in society at large. The story is one of the best examples of Weltys writing, which is known A Worn Path 1 for its realistic portrayal of the American South, particularly during the depression. Ã » Back to Table of Contents Author Biography Eudora Welty was born on April 13, 1909, in Jackson, Mississippi, to Christian Webb and ChestinaRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12173 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesill grandson. Along the way, Phoenix encounters several obstacles and the story becomes a quest for her to overcome the trials she faces, which mirror her plight in society at large. The story is one of the best examples of Weltys writing, which is known A Worn Path 1 for its realistic portrayal of the American South, particularly during the depression. Ã » Back to Table of Contents Author Biography Eudora Welty was born on April 13, 1909, in Jackson, Mississippi, to Christian Webb and Chestina AndrewsRead MoreMetz Film Language a Semiotics of the Cinema PDF100902 Words Ã |Ã 316 Pageswhich either cannot be translated into English or only approximately translated, few semantic and stylistic improvements are needed and the translation does justice to Metz s text. In some instances, usage did not adopt Michael Taylor s solution. The most glaring example of his innovative translation is the word significate now usually translated by signified (signifiÃ © in French)Ã¢â¬âwhich is used throughout the text. Langue and parole have increasingly been translated by language and speech, although
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Describe about the Applied Business Research and Ethics for Corporate Ethics. Answer: Introduction Corporate ethics or business ethics is a professional or applied form of ethics that focuses on examining principles of ethics together with morals and/or ethical problems arising in a business workplace environment. Business ethics is tasked with applying all business conduct aspects and is essential and relevant to individuals conduct as well as the entire organisation. As such, when individuals think of ethics, they virtually focus on rules distinguishing between wrong and right; the norms and conduct that make a distinction between unacceptable and acceptable behaviour. Ethical norms are acquired at home, in church, at school, or at any other social setting. Ethics can be applied in all aspects of human activities, including their professional practices, research, and business. Over the recent past, academicians have continually become cautious about conduct research activities that are in-line with the social norms and ethics. More are the dilemmas they face in their academic and research work; researchers in particular are confronted with a myriad array of ethical requirements (Sagan Singer, 2007). They have to meet professional, institutional and federal standards before conduct research on human subjects. This report, using ABC Company significantly brings to light ethical concerns in research that involve human participants. Background of the Study ABC Company process a gene therapy technique that has the capacity to reduce microcephaly development in unborn babies of pregnant women infected with the Zika virus. The gene therapy technique is based on stem cells derived from human subjects; the company needs a massive supply of stem cells in order to help treat the community. However, clinical trials results indicate that when adult stem cells are uses, microcephaly is reduced by 15%, stem cells from embryos under 14 days reduces 50% of microcephaly while stem cells from embryos of over 14 days old, 100% results are achieved. Given these results, ABC needs a large supply of stem cells for the gene therapy procedure but they are undecided on the type of cells to be used. Furthermore, they want to acquire the stem cells legally and ethically. In this regard, the company want to know which type of stem cells they should use and thus this report provides exhaustive information that will help the company make the best choice. Purpose of the Study The main aim of this study was to address the legal and ethical issues associated with using hESC, the unborn babies, and the pregnant women as study subjects and the potential of further spread of the Zika virus across the world. Accordingly, the study was to provide the basis for conducting further research in stem cells. Embryonic stem cells Stem cells are considered cells that have not fully developed but have the potential of dividing and giving rise to several similar cells or specialised to create specific cells for specific function in somatic tissues. In a broader perspective, the two stem cells types can be significantly be differentiated: the embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from embryos that are yet to be implanted in the uterus with proven potential of developing into all tissues cells of an adult (Reubinoff, et al., 2000). The adult stem cells are the second type and are located in various tissues of the body of the foetus and after birth and have specific function; tissue repair and replacement. The hESCs are found in the blastocysts inner cell mass 5 days after the oocytes fertilization (Reubinoff et al., 2000). The Ethical Concerns of Developing Embryos for Stem Cell Research and Therapy Embryonic stem cells have been found to give rise to new therapies essential for treating a wide range of health dilemmas; however, their use in the scientific research is a bitter pill to swallow. Different nations across the world have chosen to control embryonic stem cell research due to ethical dilemmas that comes with it (De Wert Mummery, 2003). In this regard, the ethical debate is mainly hinged on two moral values; the duty to prevent or alleviate suffering and the duty to respect human life value. Research in stem cells that involves the use of human embryos, critiques of scientific research studies argue that the no possibility of respecting moral principles; when obtaining embryonic stem cells, the embryo is destroyed. In this essence, there is total destruction of a potential human life (De Wert Mummery, 2003). Notwithstanding this, embryonic stem cell studies can result into the creation of new treatment therapies with prospects of alleviating ailments and suffering of a wider populace. In this aspect, determining which moral principle has the upper hand elicits heated debates between ethicists and scientists (Prus et al., 2003). The best resolve under the circumstance is found in the manner in which the embryo is viewed. The big question here is that, has the embryo attained a person status? The Human Embryos Moral Status With regard to the viewpoints outlined bellow, determining the human embryos moral status is a sophisticated and contentious issue. After fertilisation the embryo has full moral status Under this argument, an embryo produced for reproductive reasons is seen as a probable person or viewed as a person whilst still an embryo; the embryo in its entirety is viewed as a potential child and can develop into a full human (Wilson, 2011). On other hand, the Presidents Council of Bioethics (2002) observed that embryos developed for therapeutic purposes are considered tools for achieving scientific objectives. Accordingly, the embryos produced for therapy and research are created with intend of destroying them (FitzPartrick, 2003). Given this understanding, the criteria for determining the personhood are vastly unclear given the current circumstances. It is argued that the growth of fertilised oocyte into a baby is a process that is ongoing and thus any human effort to single out where and when personhood of an individual begins is illogical. In accordance with this argument, an embryo is a person regardless of its stage as an embryo, in a similar way as an infant is a human being in its infant stage (Robertson, 2010). Despite of an embryo not having human beings characteristics, over time it will develop into a person and thus should accorded dignity and respect of a person (Robertson, 2010). Notwithstanding the above argument, researchers consider the embryo in its early stages; one that has not been implanted into the uterus and has no emotional, psychological, or emotional properties associated with being an individual. In this essence, there is no need or interest to be protected and can be used for research purposes to benefit the patient (Hyun, 2010). In the same line of thought, embryos developed for research purposes cannot develop a person if they are not transferred and implanted into the uterus of a woman. As such it requires help from outside to develop. Similarly, chances of in vitro fertilised embryos developing into successful births are extremely low. Furthermore, treating something that has the potentiality of developing into a person as a person is wrong and should not be treated as such. For instance, a contender for the prize is not the prize winner and thus should not be treated as the prize winner. 14 days cut-off point after fertilisation It is widely known that human embryos deserve special amount of protection especially 14 days after fertilisation due to the following reasons: The embryo cannot split to form twins after 14 days; before the end of the 14th day, the embryo can be divided to form more than one baby or even not developing at all. It is only after 14 days of fertilisation that the central nervous system of a human being starts developing, thus before the embryo is more than 14 days old, then it has no nervous system and hence non senses. For this reason, scientists argue that if they can take organs from patients declared as brain dead to be used as transplants in other people, hundred-cell embryos that dont have a nervous system can also be used. The status of an embryo increases with its development Devander (2005) argues that in the event that all research embryos were included in a lottery in which some of them were donated to individuals for reproductive purposes, all research embryos would have a chance at developing into mature humans. Under this circumstance, all research embryos are potential children and if they are given an opportunity to, the status of personhood would increase as they last longer (Loser etal., 2010). An embryo thus must be accorded protection from its inception while its moral status increases as it grows. There are several development stages that are critical in enhancing the moral status of an embryo. The embryos implantation into the uterine wall is in approximately six days after fertilisation, the manifestation of a primordial streak which is the commencement of the nervous system development begins after 14 days of fertilisation. Proponents of embryonic research argue that it is irrelevant to view embryos as potential individuals when they are created. Similarly, if embryos are considered potential children, they can also be viewed as potential research tools. However, if embryos are produced specifically for procreative purposes, then it is valid to consider them as potential children. Additionally, when life is lost, people feel differently with regard to the stage of the life lost; before the implantation of a fertilised egg into the uterus, the embryo could be treated with less respect as compared to a human foetus or a baby after birth (Loser etal., 2010). Furthermore, some of the fertilised eggs get lost or die due to natural causes; it is estimated that approximately half of all the fertilised eggs die. If through natural processes there is such a significant loss of embryos, then using some of embryos in stem cell investigation in search for cure should not attract wide concerns. Generally, an individ uals interests and life are protected not because they are valuable and important from a universal viewpoint, but rather due to their significance to the concerned person (Stephenson, et al., 2012). In essence, no matter the human embryos moral status, the life that embryo lives is only valuable to it. Consequently, judging the embryos moral status from its age, then individuals will be making uninformed decision regarding who is a person. In accordance with the above discussion, the formation of the nervous system marks the beginning of personhood; embryos should be given moral status a person after 14 days of inception and hence treated with respect and dignity (Stephenson, et al., 2012). There is moral status for an embryo at all Under this argument, it is alluded that an embryo is but organic material similar to any other body party and thus has no moral status at all. Fertilised human eggs are like any other body parts attached to womens bodies long enough to develop so as to independently survive. For this reason, the moral status and respect that should be accorded to an embryo is the value that should be given to other peoples property (Ilkilic Ertin, 2010). Further, is a blastocyst is destroyed prior to its implantation into the uterus, there is no harm since it does not have desires, beliefs, expectations, purposes or aims to be harmed. Contrastingly, opponents of this argument observe that embryonic stem cells harvesting from an embryo in its early stage, the normal way of development of that embryo is hindered. In essence, the embryo is hindered from becoming what it was programmed become (a human being) (Ilkilic Ertin, 2010). Adult Stem Cells Research Stem cells from human adults despite of being valuable and with great potential for future therapies, they are restricted in what they can do (Banchoff, 2011). As compared to hESCs with the capacity to develop into anybody tissue cell type, adult stem cells are constrained to follow specific paths. For instance, blood-forming stem cells can only develop into mature blood cells while brain stem cells specifically grow into mature neurons; however, a brain stem cell cannot grow into a blood cell and vice versa. Accordingly, adult blood cells cannot grow indefinitely in the lab and are inflexible in the type of disease they can treat unlike embryonic stem cells. Whereas there are stories that individuals who had received therapies from adult stem cells, few of these therapies have been used in major trials that can ascertain the potentiality of whether the therapy is effective and safe. In this regard, until such large trials are conducted in both adult and embryonic stem cells, there i s virtually no way to know stem cell type that is superior (Brignier Gewirtz, 2010). Researchers on adult stem cells have in many cases advocated for stem cells use to achieve superior outcomes. As such significant research is required to ascertain the success of using adult stem cells. Religion and Embryonic Stem Cells Research With existence of numerous different religions around the world, there are a myriad of view regarding the status of early human embryo. The Christians for instance, believe that a human embryo even in its early stages has the status of a human being which thus does not advocate for human embryonic research and therapy (Ding et al., 2011). On the other hand, Islam and Judaism encourage and emphasize the significance of helping others and they thus argue that an embryo is not yet a human being; it can only attain the status of a human being after 40 days of inception. Judaism and Islam permit embryonic research and therapy. Legal Issues related to stem cell research and therapy Notwithstanding clarification from courts and parliaments across the world, there still is a massive discrepancy in the embryonic stem cell research governance. However, in the UK there has been debate on embryonic research ethics that was stimulated by the establishment of the in vitro fertilisation technology. This led to the development and enactment of the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act that has been the foundation of the UKs embryonic research regulatory framework (Kihse, 2015). This HFE Act (HFEA) was created to manage conformity with the Act as well as to licence all research institutions wishing to undertake embryonic research. Another critical issue is stem cell resources management in the UK; The House of Lords recommended for the establishment of a national Stem Cell Bank to help in the management of resources under an ethical governance framework (Wilson, 2011). For instance, the National Institute of Biological Standards Control is tasked as a reposito ry for stem cell types in the UK Stem Cell Bank (embryonic, foetal, and adult) and as a supplier for stem cell for basic research and clinical applications. Despite the above regulatory framework, there is the need for further clarification to abolish the ambiguity in embryo research governance. The HFEA only grants licences if the research is necessary and desirable. The statement does not clearly define the necessary and desirable research phrase and hence permits unethical research activities like the creating embryos through cell nuclear replacement (Robinton Daley, 2012). The European Unions harmonisation of European legal standards on the other hand is considered stricter than the UK law given the fact that some European countries prohibit deliberate development of research embryos whereas necessitating other stem cells research types. The Council of Europes Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine strictly forbids the development of human research embryos (Brivanlou et al., 2003). ABC should use stem cells of embryos below 14 days old In accordance with the above discussion, ABC Company should use embryos of below 14 days old to harvest stem cells. The harvested stem cells would help in furthering their gene therapy technique to aid in the reduction of microcephaly development in the unborn babies of pregnant women infected with the Zika virus. Accordingly, the embryo cells used should be produced specifically for research purposes through in vitro fertilisation process where there is mixing of a womans egg with a mans semen in a lab dish. Norsigian (2005) observed that harvesting embryo cells from pregnant women would culminate into the women exploitation. Similarly, using In Vitro Fertilisation process will help the company harvest thousands and thousands of embryo cells to derive enough stem cells to treat the global community to help the world overcome the Zika virus scourge. The essence of using under 14 days old embryos is that the embryo has not yet attained the status of a human being since it has not have a nervous system. A human being only attains a status of a human being when it can feel, have desires, and be emotional; however, a below 14 days old embryos does not have any of the above. Similarly, ender 14 days old embryos have high chances of dying; using these embryos for research purposes is deservingly acceptable (McLaren, 2001). Although, the use of embryos more than 14 days old provide close to perfect results in reducing microcephaly development in unborn babies, it elicits more ethical concerns. For instance, after 14 days the nervous system of the embryo has begun its development thus it has already started attaining the moral status of a human being. The potentiality of a more than 14 days old embryo developing into a full human being are higher as compared to those under 14 days old. Destruction of potential human life is un-ethical. In accordance with these, the company should need not to use stem cells from adults; first, their probability of enhancing the therapy are low (15%). Secondly, stem cells from adults are produced to perform specific functions and hence they are unsuitable for therapy purposes. Proposed Research Design ABC Company should use qualitative research in acquiring stem cells. The qualitative research in its essence is used to investigate phenomena of interest to offer comprehensive understanding of motivation, beliefs, values and attitudes. For this reason, the company will have to follow the following research process: Problem of the research identification: identifying the needed solutions Available literature review Specification of the purpose of the research. Data collection Analysis and interpretation of the collected data Evaluating and reporting the findings While using the qualitative research design, ABC Company will have to observe the following research ethics codes and guidelines: Informed consent Professional conduct Intellectual property Anonymity, confidentiality, and privacy Non-discrimination Legal issues Protection of human objects Conclusion Stem cells research is a significant domain of scientific research that has the potentiality of offering excellent therapeutic options for debilitating injury and disease. Following this realisation ABC Company developed a gene therapy technique that uses stem cells to reduce microcephaly of unborn babies in pregnant mothers affected with the Zika virus. The company now needs the supply stem cells on a large scale. There are several ethical concerns associated with harvesting stem cells from embryos. This report has significantly investigated the different ethical consideration involving deriving stem cells from under 14 days old embryos, over 14 days old embryos, and from adults. The report brings to light as to when an embryo attains the status of personhood. Similarly, the report has discussed the legal challenges involving embryonic stem cells research. In accordance with, this ABC Company is recommended to use stem cells from under 14 days old embryos. References Banchoff, T. (2011). Embryo Politics. Cornell University Press. Brignier, A. C., Gewirtz, A. M. (2010). Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 125(2), S336-S344. Brivanlou, A. H., Gage, F. H., Jaenisch, R., Jessell, T., Melton, D., Rossant, J. (2003). Setting standards for human embryonic stem cells. Science, 300(5621), 913-916. De Wert, G., Mummery, C. (2003). Human embryonic stem cells: research, ethics and policy. Human reproduction, 18(4), 672-682. Ding, D. C., Shyu, W. C., Lin, S. Z. (2011). Mesenchymal stem cells. Cell transplantation, 20(1), 5-14. FitzPatrick, W., (2003) Surplus Embryos, Nonreproductive Cloning, and the Intend/Foresee Distinction, Hastings Center Report 33: 2936. Hyun, I. (2010). The bioethics of stem cell research and therapy. The Journal of clinical investigation, 120(1), 71-75. Ilkilic, I., Ertin, H. (2010). Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell research in the islamic world: positions and reflections. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, 6(2), 151-161. Kuhse, H. (2015). Bioethics: an anthology. John Wiley Sons. Lser, P., Schirm, J., Guhr, A., Wobus, A. M., Kurtz, A. (2010). Human embryonic stem cell lines and their use in international research. Stem cells, 28(2), 240-246. McLaren, A. (2001). Ethical and social considerations of stem cell research. Nature, 414(6859), 129-131. McMahan, J., (2002) The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life, New York: Oxford University Press. Norsigian, J., 2005, Risks to Women in Embryo Cloning, Boston Globe, February 25. Prusa, A. R., Marton, E., Rosner, M., Bernaschek, G., Hengstschlger, M. (2003). Oct?4?expressing cells in human amniotic fluid: a new source for stem cell research?. Human reproduction, 18(7), 1489-1493. Reubinoff, B.E., Pera, M.F., Fong, C.Y., Trounson, A. and Bongso, A. (2000) Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro. Nature Biotechnol., 18, 399404. Robertson, J. A. (2010). Embryo stem cell research: ten years of controversy. The Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics, 38(2), 191-203. Robinton, D. A., Daley, G. Q. (2012). The promise of induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy. Nature, 481(7381), 295-305. Sagan, A., and Singer, P., 2007, The Moral Status of Stem Cells, Metaphilosophy 38(23): 264284 Stephenson, E., Jacquet, L., Miere, C., Wood, V., Kadeva, N., Cornwell, G., ... Ilic, D. (2012). Derivation and propagation of human embryonic stem cell lines from frozen embryos in an animal productfree environment. Nature protocols, 7(7), 1366-1381. Wilson, D. (2011). Creating the ethics industry: Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain. BioSocieties, 6(2), 121-141.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about theKathmandu Valley for Temples and Pilgrimages. Answer: Introduction The Kathmandu valley in Nepal remains one of the most significant tourist attraction sites in Asia. The valley contains nearly a hundred and twenty important monuments and it is also the home of seven world heritage sites. This has made it a very prominent tourist attraction center in Asia which has also been increased by the presence of temples, pilgrimages and religious monuments. The unique architectural designs and street cultural festivals also contribute greatly to the tourist activities in the valley. The valley remains the most developed and populous place in Nepal dating this to the ancient civilization that took place in the valley. This paper discusses ethical principles of corporate social responsibility activities of the Kathmandu valley tourist attraction site in Nepal. The valley was however ruined by the 2015 Kathmandu earthquake that severely destroyed most of the property in the valley. However, the valley still remains an important tourist attraction centre due to the value of tradition, religion and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world heritage sites. These include the Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Changu Narayan temple, Boudhanath Stupa and Pashupatinath temple. Other major tourist sites and cultural sites include the Aditnath temple and Kailashnath Mahedev Statue. The administrative function of the town and the population factor has led to the town having many businesses and commercial activities which thrive from the many tourists that flock the valley occasionally (Adhikari, et al 2016). Corporate Social Responsibilities of the People Hadders, H. (2017) describes Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as the proceeding with duty by organizations to act morally and add to financial advancement while enhancing the personal satisfaction of society on the loose. It is about endeavors choosing to go past least legitimate necessities and commitments coming from aggregate assertions keeping in mind the end goal to address societal requirements. There are two methods for CSR associations: budgetary organizations in which cash streams straightforwardly, and non-money related organizations in which specialized information sources or items are conveyed. By demonstrating their corporate social obligation, privately owned businesses in a joint effort with improvement performers, (for example, NGOs) can add to making the water and sanitation division more manageable. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) does not have one specific definition. Some characterize it as working in a way that meets or surpasses the moral, lawful, business and open desires that society has of business; though other characterizes it as working together in a moral way that regards individuals, society and the environment. According to Tripathi, (2016) CSR is the idea that an undertaking is responsible for its effect on every pertinent partner. It is the proceeding with responsibility by the business to carry on reasonably and capable and add to monetary improvement while enhancing the personal satisfaction of the work constrain and their families and in addition the neighborhood group and society everywhere. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an enterprise's drives to evaluate and assume liability for the organization's consequences for natural and social prosperity. The term for the most part applies to endeavors that go past what might be required by controllers or natural assurance gatherings. CSR may likewise be alluded to as "corporate citizenship" and can include bringing about here and now costs that don't give a prompt money related advantage to the organization, yet rather advance positive social and ecological change. Gautam, and Chamlagain, (2016) in the sense that Kathmandu is a highly populous valley, corporate social responsibilities are highly evident in the various firms and businesses that operate around the region. The most corporate social responsibilities in the region have been greatly influenced in the various tragedies and occurrences that have taken place in the region. These include the earthquake of 2015 and also the ecological environmental changes that often bring calamity on the people occasionally. Some of the major CSR activities that the businesses can engage in would be like promoting public interests and community growth and interaction. This can be observed by when businesses adopt various strategies to take control of the environment related calamities and take the responsibility of helping the community to advance beyond such challenges as climate change and social cohesion. Voluntary activity of businesses and firms is one of the major corporate social responsibilities that businesses should embrace. Ethical Issues Due to the presence of so many tourist attractions in Kathmandu and administrative functions, there has been so much population in the valley. The large numbers has then prompted so many social ethical issues that has continually affected the people of Kathmandu. Some of these ethical issues have sprang of from the ecological conditions of the area such as the high attitude and climatic influence from the Everest, the history of civilizations and the effect of the many tourists and religion activities among other factors. Anderson, et al (2016) addressesvoyeurism as one of the major ethical issues that need to be addressed in the valley. Some may discover dull tourism all things considered constitutes voyeurism to some degree and that this makes it sketchy on a fundamental level yet in the real sense that is a horribly over-summed up and eventually wrong method for taking a gander at it. Going by remembrances devoted to some unfortunate occasion has constantly shaped some portion of tourism, as has looking at the regularly emotional impacts of catastrophic events, for example, volcanic activities. In any case, if it's about goggling at the hopelessness of others that is the after effect of exceptionally later or as yet continuous debacles, then the part of voyeurism does undoubtedly go to the frontal area. It's frequently an issue of how much time has slipped by since a given fiasco. It's to be sure morally questionable to go to spots experiencing progressing calamity just to gaze. The time that necessities to go before dim tourism to as of late influenced zones can be legitimized is a troublesome issue in itself, in any case. For instance, when individuals go to Kathmandu to glance around and take photos of the demolition, this brought about some shock. In short, it was viewed as dishonest voyeurism. The same occurred after the grievous seismic tremors in southern China a couple of years prior. Consequently, holding up too long to past unfortunate occurrences can be an issue as well. It can really be advantageous to a stricken range to get tourism up and running again as fast as could reasonably be expected and hence recover budgetary misfortunes through tourism. After the earthquake, travelers were really urged to return ahead of schedule for this situation. At times, be that as it may, it might remain an issue and one needs to judge precisely. Regularly enough, however, it isn't a lot of an issue by any means, esp. on the off chance that it's about catastrophe, debacles, and so forth that happened route back in time, i.e. where the association with the at this very moment is absolutely verifiable. That is the situation for an expansive extent of authority remembrance destinations. These are along these lines for the most part unproblematic from a moral perspective. Shrestha, and Baniya, (2016) then concludes that it cant be totally denied that there is no less than a slight hint of something looking like voyeurism required in dark tourism. There's a sure "excite" to go and see such locales. Despite the fact that a few people have noted on events that they all of a sudden got themselves feeling somewhat like spectators stretching out their neck at the site of a street mishap or something. Such ungainly emotions shouldn't be exaggerated. Another major ethical issue in the valley is security. To chance an individuals particular wellbeing and security, or even life, is "peril tourism" and NOT dull tourism. This site does NOT advance the previous, just the last mentioned. Furthermore, clearly enough it's not just about personal safety where individuals ought not to endanger their lives but its the collective security of all individuals. In any case, that applies for the most part, not particularly to black tourism. Security of both tourists and the residents of the valley has been a serious challenge in the thriving of businesses in the valley. Some of the very important considerations in the setting up of any business is the question of security. Lack of employment in the valley has caused people to engage in criminal activities. This has then caused tourists to fear visiting the valley in fear that they might lose their personal belongings or their lives due to criminal activities in the region, Bhakta Bhandari, (2014) argues that in the fear of being attacked by criminals, tourists may fear to travel freely in the region which brings a reduction in the number of customers in the businesses that operate in the valley. This results in crumbling down of the business activities that take place in the valley due to little profits. Reduction in the number of tourists will mean a reduction in the number of customers in the business premises which causes them to close down. Insecurity also affects the businesses in various ways in that people do not set up businesses any longer in fear that the businesses might be robbed and they then encounter great losses. Security then remains a very ethical concern to both the residents and tourists of the valley as business and commercial activities form the major background of the economy of Kathmandu valley. In the sense that the valley is a very populous valley, there are several social ethical concerns such as refuse disposal which often accumulates to toxic levels. This postulates a similar challenge as that caused in Europe due to industrialization. Such problem associated with refuse disposal has also caused concern to businesses as it has influenced the business operations taking place. A perfect example from the Kathmandu valley is the disposal of plastics which has posed a serious challenge; the government efforts to dispose these plastics have always more than often proved futile. Shrestha, B. K. (2017) argues that ethical issues refer to acting moral codes of conduct. Acting in a moral way encompasses recognizing "right" and "wrong" and after that choosing the "right" decision. It is anything but difficult to distinguish dishonest business hones. The organization ought to not unlawfully utilize copyrighted materials and in addition forms. They ought not to be occupied with pay off and exactions. Despite the fact that it is not generally simple to create comparative rigid meanings of better moral practice, a firm should mandatorily make an aggressive return for its shareholders and treat its workers well. A firm likewise has more extensive duties and commitments. It ought to limit any mischief to the condition that it causes and work in ways with the goal that it doesn't harm the groups in which it is being worked. It is known as corporate social Responsibility (CRS). There are huge numbers of ethical issues that the business firms are confronting. Some of these include; Work. Due to the national and global relocation the organizations are confronting the distinctive issues. There is an absence of very much characterized work administration strategy. Able abilities to oversee and address the issues of human asset in the moral foundation are inadequate in Nepal. There is as yet the act of kid work in many firms in spite of the fact that the legislature has made the law against youngster work. Firms ought to build up the insignificant worthy benchmarks that safe the fundamental rights and also the respect of representatives and review alternate subcontractors and auxiliaries all the time (Sanjel, et al 2016). The condition of business enterprises and firms is also a critical ethical concern. There is the absence of data on the arrangement on condition safeguarding and insurance. The high augmentation in urbanization in modern territories is prompting constrained removal. Absence of readiness/information and development to present the origination of administrations and items which are eco-accommodating and achieve new reusing plans is the real difficulties in Nepal. Another ethical concern that needs to be addressed is defilement. It is a noteworthy issue profoundly established in every last division and at all levels. Responsibility to engage interest for fixes from government authorities amid business exchanges is common. In all regulatory procedure, there is an abnormal state of defilement which prompts high cost of working together whose outcomes in low item quality and guidelines. Absence of disciplinary and an exemption activity for untrustworthy practices and requests is an extraordinary moral issue that is being confronted by the organizations. Tamang, (2015) explains that a few business analysts advocate that the pattern of giving rewards may be the value that ought to be necessarily paid to do a more noteworthy great. These financial analysts consider that in a country where previous political structures constrain or modify the workings of the market instrument, carrying, side installments to government civil servants and debasement as dark marketeering to "accelerate" affirmation for business speculations may really fortify welfare. According to Banskota, (2015) human rights are also another ethical concern that needs to be addressed in the businesses and firms in Kathmandu. Primary human rights underestimated in the today's produced world, for example, the right to speak freely, opportunity of affiliation, flexibility of development , flexibility of get together, et cetera, are in no way, shape or form divinely/all around acknowledged. Essential/fundamental human rights are as yet not regarded in numerous nations. Large number rights are not all around acknowledged, for example, flexibility of affiliation, the right to speak freely, opportunity of get together et cetera. There are several other ethical principles such as assessment and money related responsibility, free rivalry and market assurance among others. The government of Nepal and other nongovernmental organizations has used several mechanisms to try and address some of these ethical concerns. Some of these solutions to these ethical concerns include; waste management, favorable legislation and change in ideological systems. Solutions to the Ethical Concerns in Kathmandu Valley Amiya, et al (2014) holds that proper disposal of refuse in social places has been one of the major concerns in resolving the social ethical concerns in the businesses. Proper discharge of plastics and refuse is important in cleanliness of the environment to ensure safe working conditions. personal responsibility is one of the major concerns in realizing this. However, the government of Nepal in conjunction with world regulatory bodies has been in the forefront of ensuring clean and safe environments. The United Nations Convention for Human Rights in conjunction with the government of Nepal has put forward various measures to address the issue of human rights. This has focused on the promotion and enhancement of the principles of liberal democracy, protection of the individual in trade and efforts of promoting a free market which has improved the state of businesses operating in the valley. The people have also been sensitized on the importance of understanding their rights and freedoms and pushing for realization which is an aspect of self determination. Thomson, (2014) explains that CSR has also seen various measures that have provided solutions to the ethical concerns. An imperative part of CSR is the manner by which endeavors communicate with their inner and outside partners; representatives, clients, group, NGOs, open experts, and so on. It is about ventures choosing to go past least legitimate prerequisites and commitments originating from aggregate assertions keeping in mind the end goal to address societal necessities Ecological Protection is one of the major concerns of CSR in solving ethical concerns. The concentrate in this segment is on finding supportable answers for regular assets use keeping in mind the end goal to lessen organization's effect on the earth. In the course of recent years, ecological duty has extended to include generously more than consistence with all pertinent government controls or even a couple of activities, for example, reusing or vitality productivity. With respect to and sanitation, an organization can demonstrate its corporate social duty regarding case by building enhanced and creative wastewater treatment plants or feasible sanitation and also applying water collecting. Koirala, (2014) explains that in matters regarding to human rights, business practices can significantly influence the rights and respect of representatives and groups. The fundamental concentrate is on creating work environments free from segregation where imagination and learning can prosper tolerable codes of expert lead and where an appropriate adjust can be kept up amongst work and different parts of our lives. In sanitation, an organization can demonstrate its corporate social duty by giving spotless and safe sanitation offices and sufficient water supply to its representatives keeping in mind the end goal to guarantee their human rights. Promotion of the well being of individuals has been of great significance in resolving the ethical issues. The work environment is currently perceived as a critical setting for wellbeing advancement. An organization can advance satisfactory wellbeing standard by giving a solid and safe work put for its representatives and put resources into wellbeing advancement in different activities executed with improvement offices. As to and sanitation, an organization can demonstrate its social corporate duty by adding to wellbeing advancement extends in association with improvement performing artists, for example, NGOs. These ventures may bring issues to light about the relationship of sanitation, cleanliness and general wellbeing. Finally, human disaster management is another important milestone that the corporate social responsibility has addressed in resolving ethical concerns in Kathmandu. Organizations, in participation with open division, common society and global associations have assumed an imperative part in supporting helpful alleviation operations. As to and water, an organization can demonstrate its social corporate obligation by supporting individuals in a fiasco territories with clean drinking water or sanitation offices (Knoop, 2014). In conclusion, it is important to point that CSR policies and functions of the people and businesses in Kathmandu greatly ensure that people adhere to existing laws, conventions and practices. These are mainly government legislations, religious and communal belief systems that form the culture of the people living in the valley. International norms also form the basis on which peoples morals are ascertained and tested. Businesses should however assume the major role of corporate social responsibility since as Durkheim suggests, there can never be order in the society if people do not take up certain roles in the society. References Adhikari, S., Paudel, K., Aro, A. R., Adhikari, T. B., Adhikari, B., Mishra, S. R. (2016). 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