Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Euro Crisis Essay Example for Free

Euro Crisis Essay The ability of Euro zone countries (countries in Europe that use the common currency called the Euro) to borrow in a common currency poses free-rider problems because there may be an incentive to bailout countries that borrow excessively. How does the original design of the Euro attempt to address this incentive to over-borrow by some countries? The free rider problem refers to when someone is capturing the full benefit of an action while shifting the cost to others. The free-rider problem built into the euro lies into the fiscal structure, since the countries were fiscally undisciplined and also governments were gaining political gain running deficits supported by their euro partner nations. Over borrowing occurred due to the incentive of governments to borrow in a common currency; to address this issue the original design had to solutions. One was the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) which limited budget deficit to up to 3% of GDP and 60% of stock of public debt, aiming to ensure fiscal discipline; where if a member state was in an excessive deficit situation then the council could impose sanctions. The Second rule is a â€Å"no bailout† clause stating that community shall not be liable for the debt of governments (with some exceptions) The original design of the euro sought to address the over-borrowing. Why were the measures in the original Euro design insufficient in preventing the Euro sovereign debt problems? First it is important to point out that the sovereign debt crisis is significantly tied to the banking crisis and macroeconomic crisis through the entire euro area. The original measure was insufficient because in a way these measures actually worsen the crisis. The sovereign debt crisis can be divided in three phases: pre-crisis period, the financial and sovereign debt crisis and post-crisis recovery. The initial design affected the pre-crisis since in reality it increased fiscal risk due to the increased in the current account imbalances across the euro area and also the dispersion in credit boom, housing prices and sectorial debt levels. Then, during the crisis 2007-2008 the original design actually augmented the fiscal impact since the global financial shock had diverse impacts across the euro area and policies were focus on European Central Bank to address the financial shock, not accounting these policies prompted a worse euro sovereign debt crisis (Especially countries with macro-imbalances). Thirdly, the original measures slowed down the post-crisis recovery period because the stated estrictions of deficit and debt made the recovery stretched, along with the poor political management of countries’ institutions to solve factors involving the crisis. What are the new reforms to address sovereign debt concerns? What makes the new measures superior to the original ones? The new reforms to address the sovereign debt is compounded on a treaty called â€Å" Fiscal Compact Treaty† which requires new fiscal principles to be pose in each country (Jan 2013). These fiscal reforms are based on two principles: a void high public debt since it’s a threat to fiscal stability. Second, the fiscal balance has to be close to zero. The improvement is a structural budget balance less than 1% of GDP when debt is below 60%. Also the country that has higher public debt (off the limit) will have to correct the issue with a timeline. Though this reform is a little more efficient than the original, it still has major implementation problems since it requires adjustments on forecast errors for the structural budget balance. Also it’s difficult to accurately trust the ability of governments to identify and tackle down excessive imbalances.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

adam smith Essays -- essays research papers fc

Views of Adam Smith Adam Smith had many views that helped in making the world what it is today. I can’t imagine what the world would be like if there weren’t thinkers like Adam Smith. Our career as Pharmacists is a great example of this. What would we be working so hard for if we made the same amount of money as a trash man? He had many other views that were just as important. Adam Smith believed that a nation's wealth was not derived by how much they had in resources, or in an exchangeable commodity, but rather by the labor that its residents produce. "The annual labor of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences which it annually consumes." (Wealth of Nations, p. 1) He stated that a nation could increase the efficiency of the potential of its people by increasing these two aspects of the work force: (a) Skill, dexterity, and judgement with which labor is applied, and (b) Proportion of those employed in useful labor to those not so employed. For the first aspect, Smith noted that the best way to increase the efficiency of labor is the division of labor. The division of labor is the central factor in Smith’s theory of economic growth. Division of labor is the splitting of a large task into smaller tasks and then having one person be responsible for only one or two of the smaller tasks, which leads to an increase in productivity and stimulates the entire growth cycle, which increases the efficiency of the whole task. The division of labor and the accumulation of capital are what Adam Smith believed to be the driving forces of economic growth in any nation. He found that when the division of labor had broken down the production of almost any commodity into a series of simple operations it was more natural for tools and machinery to be invented that replace hand labor and expedite the entire production process, thereby increasing worker productivity. This increased productivity, combined with the growing capital stock to increase national output, enables a society to enjoy higher levels of consumption, resulting in a genuine rise in the â€Å"wealth of the nation† according to Smith. Adam Smith stated that the value of all things is based on the amount of labor that must be produced to gain it. He believed that the price of an object could be split into three parts: r... ...ner the market, and leave the consumers with a mediocre product. In response to tightened importation laws, he wrote that a strong foreign trade system would be the only way to provide good products to the English public. Adam Smith was accurately seeing the future of the world’s commerce. He saw that as producers tried to make more and more money, they were forced to cut corners. This, as a result, lead to products that were not as good as they should be. He knew that the way to improve product quality in Great Britain was to import goods from other counties. Adam Smith had many very important views. He had set ways that he thought things should have been and he spent his life explaining these views and trying to get others to see things as he did. Many people supported and accepted his views, while others completely disagreed with him. Whether or not you agree or disagree with his views, you have to admit that Adam Smith is very important even in the world today. Works Cited Bibliography 1. Heilbroner, Robert, Teachings From The Worldly philosophy, 1st ed. (Norton, 1997) â€Å"Wealth of the Nations†. Smith, Adam www.history.edu/adamsmith/views. (Accessed 4-1-02)

Monday, January 13, 2020

Family Nursing Diagnoses Essay

The family discussed in this paper consists of five children belonging to two parents. Included are the father (PF), age 60, the mother (EF), age 54, and five children (CF, JF, AF, KF, KF), whose ages are 18, 16, 14, 12, and 9. All of the children are biological to the two parents who have been married almost 30 years. The father is a small business owner of a furniture store in downtown. He is the sole financial support of the family. The mother is a stay at home mom and home-schools the three younger daughters. The children are all almost two years apart except for the youngest. The oldest son, CF, lives at home and has just graduated high school after being home-schooled by his mom for most of his grade school life. He will be attending college in the summer and fall. The second son, JF, lives at home and is going to be a junior at a private high school in Raleigh this coming school year. The three younger daughters all live at home and are home schooled by their mom. In general, the family stays very busy with their individual lives. They make time almost every night before bed to get together and have family worship. The kids would like it if they had more time with their dad but say that he works a lot and that it is okay because they understand why. The mom would like to have more time to plan meals for dinner but is so busy that she has to buy their meals from a company that pre makes them and freezes them. The mom says that she used to be able to cook before she had kids and even had time to exercise but now she just barely has time in the day to get  everything done on her list. The husband spends six days a week at work, 12 to 14 hours every day. It is all he has known for the past 30 years. He would like more time to spend with his kids but somebody has to run the business and ensure that the family is provided for. The whole family agrees that they wish they did more together as a family outside of their home and going to church. Their biggest concerns are a lack of time and a conflict in everyone’s schedules as well as a desire to work on their diet and nutrition. After asking them, they would love to go to the park together and go on vacation as a family more often than once a year, which is stressful enough to plan that. The wife hopes to be able to start cooking meals again for the family and planning healthier snacks for the kids. The husband says that he pretty much eats pepperoni pizza every day. The family is very close to their extended family, which is huge. For the most part, the family spends as much time as possible with the mom’s parents. The kids all have strong bonds with their grandparents. These relationships are very important to the family. Using the Friedman Family Assessment Model helped me to gather and organize my verbal conversations I had with the family. It was helpful in pinpointing appropriate nursing diagnoses and health issues for this family. The family structural assessment was broken down into communication, roles, power, and family values. Communication between the family members was easily assessed from conversation. The three younger girls tell me that they get along most of the time and do everything together. That being said however, the oldest daughter, 14, expresses that she sometimes feels held back from doing teenage things because her two younger sisters cannot be included. The boys share a room together and get along quite well. It is important to note that they both have very different schedules and do not spend a whole lot of time together like they used to be able to do. They both tell me however, that they are still best friends. The oldest brother jokingly says that his younger brother, JF, can be really annoying and loud sometimes and then the whole family chimed in saying, â€Å"Oh yes that’s our JF!† JF agreed smiling. Between the mom and dad there was little emotional  conversation noted and it got very awkward when I started to ask about their communication. The dad said shortly that it was â€Å"just fine.† The mom obviously disagrees because she rolled her eyes at me. Seems to be a lot of tension between the parents when it comes to communication. The mom later told me that they are working on it and some days are better than others. The dad was very good about keeping the kids under control when it came to family meetings with me. At times, everyone would be talking and it could get loud but PF would get the kids to be quiet and remind them to be respectful of whomever is speaking. I can see that the kids all respect and love their father. He is constantly joking around with them and can be very sarcastic. The kids love this but the wife, not so much sometimes. The family’s roles were very clearly defined. The mom makes the rules at home. She actually does a lot for the home as far as maintenance and improvements go. She also pays all of the bills and manages all of the money. The mom also home-schools the three youngest girls and spends her days taking them to different classes and activities. The mom is also the disciplinarian of the kids when it comes to grounding them or even taking the door off of their bedroom. On top of everything, the mom also makes sure there is food on the table every night. Over the last few years this has been a struggle for her because she does not have the time to plan healthy meals like she used to. She is not even able to cook them anymore and has to buy their meals from a company that pre-makes them and freezes them. The dad stays busy running the small furniture business downtown. He gets home from work around 6 o’clock every night and is exhausted. He does all of the yard work, with the help of they boys, and he says that he enjoys it because he gets to get up on his big tractor. The dad also manages the rental house they have next door. There is a lot of stress on the dad being the sole financial provider of the household. Community and public health nursing assesses the relationship of variables in the community with the patients and overall health. Personal upbringings, culture, religion, and ethnicity are all variables that are considered in order to have a basic understanding of the community’s framework. After doing the family assessment, using my windshield survey, and current  research, nursing diagnoses related to this family and interventions with potential outcomes will be discussed. Nurses are advocates for patient whether it is within a hospital or in community health nursing. Advocacy in community health is the nurse advocating the family or community’s needs to organizations and businesses that can or are supposed to help the community. Incorporating Jean Watson’s theory of caring is important when providing education for a family within a community. Watson’s theory uses a contemporary holistic framework viewing the persons into dimension of body, soul, and mind. Nursing is always changing yet the foundation and values will forever stay the same; evident by Watson’s theory of caring. This caring theory is a moral/ethical foundation for professional nursing. Caring science is a sacred science that acknowledges the connection of nurses with the human-environment field (Watson, 2012). The nursing profession must be careful in sustaining meaningful, ethical, philosophical foundation to its’ science and theories (Watson, 2012). There are three nursing diagnoses that apply to this family based off of the assessment: knowledge deficit related to emotional state affecting learning, imbalanced nutrition more than bodily requirements related to lack of knowledge of nutritional needs, food intake, and/or appropriate food preparation, and lastly, activity intolerance related to insufficient sleep or rest periods. Healthy People 2020 leading health indicator of nutrition, physical activity, and obesity applies to this family’s vulnerability. Most Americans do not eat a healthy balance diet in combination with no getting enough exercise therefore leading to obesity (Healthy People 2020, 2015). Generally speaking, the family is not obese, however, a few are a bit overweight and the boys and dad have no muscle tone due to either stress (on the dad’s part) or lack of physical activity (on the boy’s part). Three interventions related to the nursing diagnoses and the Healthy People 2020 LHI include; educating the family on time management and prioritization, having a family dietician consult meeting with the family on better eating habits and balanced convenient meals, and establish guidelines and goals with the family for physical activity. A recent study done on time management shows the effectiveness of time prioritization coaching (Boniwell, Osin, & Sircova, 2014). This article may be an effective tool in  addressing the family’s imbalance of time management and perspective therefore resulting in improved stress over a lack of time. Conflicting values may be a closed mindedness towards approaching time management through coaching and the family will therefore not make improvement on time management. Due to the nature of coaching, there may be some ethical issues such as upholding a professional relationship, maintaining expertise, respect, and competence in coaching. That being said, the family could benefit a lot in time prioritization coaching. In order to address the imbalance of nutrition diagnosis, a recent clinical study shows that online dietician services can help families with what they eat on a specialized personal level. With the Internet ever evolving, why not be able to meet with a dietician onl ine that can evaluate the family’s nutritional status and provide healthy interventions (Brandt, Pedersen, Glintborg, Toubro, Nielsen, Eysenbach, Sendergaard, 2014). This may be just what the family needs; internet-based interactive and personalized weight management. Family values may differ in that they do not feel they need to spend money on a dietician program of any kind and know what is healthy and what is not. Basically, the family may be somewhat in denial therefore preventing the family from receiving education and personalized information to improve their diet. Ethical issues include the risk for developing an eating disorder, maintaining a professional relationship, and the management of patient data must be secure. Addressing the nursing diagnosis of a need for physical activity will require improvement on time management. The family needs to be provided with a list of activities that can be done together as a family and on their own. The mom would love to join a gym but in the past when she does join she never finds the time to go. In order to solve this problem, the mom needs to sign up for classes that are at a scheduled time so that she can put these times in her schedule and make the time for her to go. A conflicting value of the mom may be that she feels she should be spending that time with the family instead of on herself, which would prevent her from getting the physical activity she needs to improve her health. Ethical considerations for improving the family’s physical activity include respecting the individual’s wishes, offering a non-judgmental environment, and protecting the individual’s information. References Boniwell, I., Osin, E., & Sircova, A. (2014). Introducing time perspective coaching: A new approach to improve time management and enhancing well-being. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 12(2), 24-40. Brandt, C. J., Brandt, V., Pedersen, M., Glintborg, D., Toubro, S., Nielsen, J. B., Eysenbach, G., Brandt, K., & Sendergaard, J. (2014). Long-term effect of interactive online dietician weight loss advice in general practice (LIVA) protocol for a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Family Medicine, 1-6. Healthy People 2020. (2015). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/Leading-Health-Indicators Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2012). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (8th ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier. Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

College of Charleston Acceptance Rate, SAT/ACT Scores, GPA

College of Charleston is a public liberal arts college with an acceptance rate of 79%. Founded in 1770 and located in the heart of Charleston, South Carolina, the College of Charleston provides a historically rich environment for students. The C of C has a 13-to-1  student/faculty ratio  and an average class size of about 21. The curriculum is grounded in the liberal arts and sciences, but students will also find thriving pre-professional programs in business and education. On the athletic front, the College of Charleston Cougars compete in the NCAA Division I  Colonial Athletic Association. Considering applying to College of Charleston? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, College of Charleston had an acceptance rate of 79%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 79 students were admitted, making C of Cs admissions process somewhat competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 11,675 Percent Admitted 79% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 24% SAT Scores and Requirements College of Charleston requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 54% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 550 640 Math 520 610 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of C of Cs admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to College of Charleston scored between 550 and 640, while 25% scored below 550 and 25% scored above 640. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 520 and 610, while 25% scored below 520 and 25% scored above 610. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1250 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at College of Charleston. Requirements College of Charleston does not require the SAT writing section or SAT Subject tests, but will consider these scores if submitted. Note that C of C participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements College of Charleston requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 47% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 22 29 Math 20 26 Composite 22 28 This admissions data tells us that most of College of Charlestons admitted students fall within the top 37% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to C of C received a composite ACT score between 22 and 28, while 25% scored above 28 and 25% scored below 22. Requirements College of Charleston does not require the ACT writing section, but will consider writing scores if submitted. Unlike many schools, C of C superscores ACT results; your highest subscores from multiple ACT sittings will be considered. GPA In 2018, the middle 50% of College of Charlestons incoming class had high school GPAs between 3.4 and 4.35. 25% had a GPA above 4.35, and 25% had a GPA below 3.4. These results suggest that most successful applicants to College of Charleston have primarily A and B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph College of Charleston Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to College of Charleston. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in  with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances The College of Charleston, which accepts over three-quarters of applicants, has a somewhat selective admissions process. If your SAT/ACT scores and GPA fall within the schools average ranges, you have a strong chance of being accepted. However, C of C has a holistic admissions process involving other factors beyond your grades and test scores. The school is looking for participation in meaningful extracurricular activities and a rigorous course schedule. Applicants may also choose to submit an optional letter of recommendation to supplement their application. Note that students applying to the Honors College will be required to submit an additional application as well as an essay, resume, and letter of recommendation. In the scattergram above, the blue and green dots represent accepted students. You can see that the majority of admitted applicants had high school averages of B or higher, combined SAT scores of 1000 or higher, and ACT composite scores of 20 or better. Slightly higher numbers improve your chances significantly. If You Like College of Charleston, You May Also Like These Schools: Appalachian State UniversityEast Carolina UniversityDuke UniversityAuburn UniversityElon University All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and College of Charleston Undergraduate Admissions Office.