Saturday, March 30, 2019

Emotional Intelligence Ei And Burnout Among Nurses Psychology Essay

ablaze parole Ei And Burn prohibited Among Nurses Psychology EssayThis turn over examined the human blood amongst randy intelligence and burnout among nurses get goinging in private hospitals in Malaysia. Theoretical publicationss connect to this relationship argon presented in the get under unrivalleds skinning array of this chapter. The existing literatures on the topics were examined and key pieces were brought together to establish a pedestal for this study. While for the twinkling part of this chapter, it discusses just well-nigh the speculation-establish framework of this study and fin every(prenominal)y, the look for hypotheses are arrive based on the theoretical foundations and experiential evidences from the existing literatures.2.2 BurnoutThe term burnout has its roots in the medical and breast feeding discip bends. It was first delimitate by a psychiatrist, named Herbert Freudenberger in 1974. The theory of burnout was developed by means of his cli nical get laid by exploring the turmoil that pot experience either day. fit to Maslach and Jackson (1981a), burnout occurs in the helping professions, such(prenominal) as care for due to the chronic mark associated with doing work that involves deal. Basically burnout occurs as scentings of steamy exhaustion, negative fingerings, and attitudes within the meditate and the increase of negative self-concept. The earliest example of the burnout term in nurse literature was found in the obligates published by Seymour Shubin in 1978. Shubin pull backd burnout as hazardous to nursing and all other helping professions. The study of burnout, although non exclusive to nursing, continues to be an of the essence(p) occupational issue for the nursing profession.2.2.1 Definition of Burnout at that place are umteen definitions of burnout, however almost definitions share a view of burnout as a state of fatigue and steamy exhaustion, as a result of mad depletion and loss of motivation. The term burnout that was first coined by Freudenberger in 1974 refers to wearing out from the pressures of work. It was exampled to describe the experience of employees in professions that needs high point of people contract. Freudenberger in 1975 further defined burnout as wearing out, failing, nice exhausted, and it occurs when excessive demands on energy, strength or resources are made.Cherniss (1980) was among the first to describe burnout within human table service range who defined burnout as a regale that communicates to an individuals attitudes and behaviors change in negative ways in receipt to work reach outing. On the other hand, Maslach (1982) who had extensively re expected rough burnout has gived the most commonly accepted definition of burnout as a syndrome of delirious exhaustion, de in the flesh(predicate)ization, and reduced in-personized accomplishment that arsehole occur among individuals who do peoples work of some kind. Maslach ide ntify collar related to themes (1) painful steamy experiences often resulted in clinical practitioners feeling stirredly exhausted and drained (2) as a result, they developed negative and cynical attitudes towards their clients and (3) personal competency suffered resulting in feelings of failure astir(predicate) their cleverness to work in the healthcare profession. These three themes were summarized as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment and later ope sharpized to legal community burnout using the Maslach Burnout schedule (MBI) (Maslach, Jackson Leiter, 1996).Garrosa, Moreno-Jimenez, Liang and Gonzalez (2008) indicated that burnout is a specific form of chronic and occupational stress in the professional companionable services. According to Westman and Eden (1996), studies consider shown a strong relationship in the midst of work stress and burnout in many occupations. Especially, burnout has been repeatedly cogitate to exco gitate stress in the human service field due to the frequent and intense interactions with clients (Cordes Doughery, 1993 Lee Ashforth, 1996). Additionally, studies concur excessively shown that nurses who experience occupational stress experience greater burnout (Stechmiller Yarandi, 1993). Thus, burnout is related to stress whereby burnout is a reaction to stress. Prolonged and unrelieved work stress often leads to burnout which results in negative attitudes towards work. Freudenberger (1975) postulated that burnout involves physical and behavioral symptoms. Behavioral consequences of burnout overwhelm change magnitude interaction with care recipients, ineffective absenteeism, and high levels of job turnover (Maslach, 1982 Maslach Leiter, 1997).2.2.2 Models of BurnoutThe burnout literature provides several sits of burnout. This section describes three poseurs constructed in the early eighties which go on from the simplest to the most complex sit around.2.2.2.1 Chernis s transaction moulding of burnoutCherniss (1980) was a of import prognosticate of the first wave of burnout police detectives and offered a burnout model that articulated transactional imbalance among the personal resources of the giver and the demands of the recipient or posture. Cherniss descri love burnout as a transactional stress process that involves three spots. The first stage is stress whereby demands set exceed individual resources for coping. The second stage is strain, the initial emotional repartee to stress which usually includes feelings of anxiety, tension, fatigue, and exhaustion. Finally, defensive coping occurs which leads to changes in attitudes and behaviors such as the tendency of burnout individuals to treat clients in depersonalized way. Two years later, Cherniss modified his model and elaborated on the model that the causes of stress can either be national or external demands. Additionally, the limited resources contributing to stress can as well as be external (e.g. avail world power of time, work space, and equipment) or internal (e.g. skills, knowledge, energy, and spirit).In summary, Cherniss theorized that burnout is a coping response in a transactional process that begins with excessive and prolonged picture to job stress. The un cracklable stress causes strain in the individual which influences the coping process. If the stress is prolonged or exits much than(prenominal) intense, it will deplete the coping resources of an individual and force the individual to discriminate mentally.2.2.2.2 Edelwich and Brodsky Five stages of burnoutEdelwich and Brodsky (1980) suggested 5 stages of burnout (1) enthusiasm (2) stagnation (3) frustration (4) apathy and (5) intervention. At the first stage, employees have great enthusiasm for their new jobs. They do not know much about their job and have unrealistic expectations about outcomes of their effort. thus, when the outcome is not as expected, they become disillusioned. During the period of stagnation at stage two, realities of the job become evident. The job is no longer substantial as it first appeared. Employees are now more concerned with come across personal needs, operative hours, and career exploitation. The third stage is called the period of frustration. Employees begin to question their job effectiveness and the value of their job. The limits imposed by bureaucracy frustrate the individuals and they become dissatisfied with the job situation. At this stage, employees begin to develop emotional, physical, and behavioral problems.Proceed to stage quadruple employees frustration turns to apathy because individuals feel trapped. On one hand, they feel frustrated by the job situation but on the other hand, they need the salary. The emotional and physical responses of individuals become worse whereby they would avoid clients whenever possible. The final stage is intervention. Neverthe little, it cannot be determined whether this stage wou ld occur in an organization or the individual who is experiencing burnout would gain their psychological state as undesirable. In summary, Edelwich and Brodsky viewed burnout as an evolutionary process that begins with sumptuous enthusiasm and commitment. Subsequently, the loss of i conceiveism, vigor, and purpose are triggered largely by work conditions (Edelwich Brodsky, 1980).2.2.2.3 Maslach Burnout ca employ by companionable interactionMaslach, a social psychologist, who became a star(predicate) figure in the emerging research of burnout, has provided the conceptual definition that begun the second wave of research. Maslach (1982) expound burnout as a three-dimensional syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Another specific contribution Maslach made was the theoretical emphasis on the relational causes of burnout which linked to the social roots of emotional expenditure (Leiter Maslach, 1988 Maslach Leiter, 1997).Maslach (1982) saw that emotional overload and subsequent emotional exhaustion are the heart of the burnout syndrome. Thus, the first response to a nerve-wracking interaction with other people is emotional exhaustion. As people become emotionally depleted, they cope by cutting back on their involvement with others. This quarantined response which called depersonalization is the second aspect of burnout and leads to sundry(a) negative attitudes and behaviors. At this stage, individuals who experience burnout feel more emotional distress and guilt about how they have treated those that they are trying to help. Finally, the feeling of reduced personal accomplishment which is the third aspect of burnout appears. At this point, the individuals feel inadequate about their aptitude to treat or help others. They tend to believe that they have failed professionally and chosen the wrong profession.A major contribution by Maslach was the development of the Maslach Burnout stock lis t (MBI). Maslach and Jackson (1981a, 1981b) developed the MBI, which was one of the first dependable instruments for valid flyerment of burnout. MBI is still the most wide-eyed-used measure of burnout in circulating(prenominal) research. MBI mensuratees psychological burnout and has three contrasting versions, which include one general survey, one for human service professionals, and one for educators. The most commonly used measure of burnout is the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey or MBI-HSS (Maslach, Jackson Leiter, 1996) which was developed to measure occupational burnout among people working in the field of human services.2.2.3 Burnout and NursingEmployees in general experience burnout on the job, especially those in jobs with high give with people. Nevertheless, nurses are considered at high risk of work-related stress and particularly sensitized to burnout among the different healthcare providers (Keane, Ducette Alder, 1985 Kilpatrick, 1989 Schaefer Moos, 1993 Schaufeli Janczur, 1994 Duquette, Kerouac Sandhu Beaudet, 1994 Farrington, 1995 Decker, 1997 Marsh, Beard Adams, 1999 Koivula, Paunonen Laippala, 2000 Taormina Law, 2000 Shimizu, Mizoue, Kubota, Mishima Nagata, 2003 Jenkins Elliott, 2004 Piko, 2006). This is also proven by the circumstance that burnout in nursing has received world-wide attention (Demerouti, Bakker, Nechreiner Schaufeli, 2000). Several studies have identify nurse burnout rates are as high as 40-50% (Hapell, Martin Pinikahana, 2003 Vahey, Aiken, Sloane, Clarke Vargas, 2004). Nurses are particularly susceptible to the development of burnout, of importly because of the nature and the emotional demands of their profession.Nurses experience considerable stress in their job because they have long working hours, a wide range of tasks, interpersonal conflict with long-sufferings and their families, doctors, and other co-workers, exposure to death and dying, and noise pollution (Schmitz, Neuman Opperm an, 2000 Maslach, Schaufeli Leiter, 2001 Shimizu et al., 2003). Studies have also confirmed that stressful circumstances for hospital nurses are escalating (Foxall, Zimmerman, Standley Bene, 1990 Healey McKay, 2000 Koivula et al., 2000). Basically, nurses are subjected to many demands in the workplace which include physical demands as well as the psychological/emotional demands. The physical demands are related to the physical energy required to accomplish the daily duties of nursing such as transferring diligents in and out of bed and lifting tolerants onto a bed. On the other hand, psychological/emotional demands are related to the emotional energy required to care for patients with chronic illness (Van Servellen Leake, 1993). Therefore, nurses who feel overloaded recognize a lack of substanceful connection with the patients.2.3 excited Intelligence (EI)Emotional intelligence (EI) is complementary to cognitive abilities (IQ) (Devrim, Nadi, Mahmut, Mustafa Mustafa Kemal , 2005). Goleman (1995) stated that EI is significant to success. Goleman further explained the difference surrounded by people with high IQs who experience unwieldyies in their personal and professional lives and people with moderate IQs who are very prospered in all their endeavours. Emotions are separated from that of the rational mind by having independent views and a mind of their own (Freshwater Stickley, 2004). Therefore, one has two minds, a rational mind that thinks and an emotional mind that feels. In conclusion, both the rational mind and emotional mind, store memories and influence our responses, actions, and choices. Furthermore, EI such as pedantic intelligence can be learned and developed with age (Mayer, Caruso Salovey, 2000). question has shown that people with high EI go out their own and others feelings, know how to manage themselves, deal successfully with others, and respond effectively to work demands (Dulewicz Higgs, 2003 Goleman, 2005). Cooper (1997) stated that people with high levels of EI experience more career success, build stronger personal relationships, lead more effectively, and enjoy better health than those with low EI. Hence, developing EI competencies in existing employees or finding individuals who posses these skills will enhance the organizations bottom line (Goleman, 1998a, 1998b) and ensure long-term success for the company.2.3.1 Background and Definition of Emotional Intelligence (EI)The idea of EI has its roots in the social intelligences. EI was first proposed by Thorndike in 1921, who noted that it was of value in human interactions and relationships. Gardners (1983) multiple intelligence theory later also contributed to the theory of EI through the identification of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences. interpersonal intelligence comprised of the cogency to learn others and to co-operate with them, whereas intrapersonal intelligence comprised of the baron to be self-aware, to secern ones own f eelings, and to use this to operate successfully in life. However, the term EI was not brought into mainstream psychology until 1990s (Mayer, DiPaolo Salovey, 1990 Salovey Mayer, 1990). Hence, EI is a new construct since the first peer-reviewed article that was published in 1990 (Salovey Mayer, 1990). The concept is also described as a new theory which is still in the initial stage of development and testing (Ashkanasy, Hartel Daus, 2002 Cherniss, Extein, Goleman Weissberg, 2006). As a result, definition of EI varies.Salovey and Mayer (1990) first coined the term of EI and defined EI as the mogul to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this cultivation to guide ones thinking and actions. Mayer et al. (2000) further defined EI as an ability to recognize the meanings of emotions and their relationships, and reason and problem-solve on the basis of them. EI is involved in the capacity to perceive emotions, assimilate emotions related feelings, date the education of those emotions, and manage them. However, the concept of EI was popularized by Goleman (1995) through his book Emotional Intelligence, which became the best-selling book for business and education leaders. Goleman (1998a) identified EI as the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. In addition, Bar-On (2005) defined EI as a cross-section of be emotional and social competencies, skills, and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands.In conclusion, recognizing feelings and controlling emotions are described as the core competencies of EI. Individuals who are emotionally intelligent can understand one another and each others views to overcome conflict and avoid alter the relationship. Therefore, EI is about sensing what others are feelings and handling relationships effectively (Dulewicz Higgs, 2000). Previous research also addressed the relationship in the midst of EI and work outcome variables such as stress perceptions in the workplace (Bar-On, Brown, Kirkcaldy Thome, 2000 Nikolaou Tsaousis, 2002), job satisfaction (Wong Law, 2002), job commitment (Nikolaou Tsaousis, 2002), leader effectiveness (Higgs Aitken, 2003), and exertion (Lam Kirby, 2002 Van Rooy Viswesvaran, 2004 Lopes, Grewal, Kadis, Gall Salovey, 2006).2.3.2 Theories of Emotional Intelligence (EI)Many theories have been proposed since the emergence of the concept of EI in 1990s. Nevertheless, three theories have gained acceptance among scholars and practitioners (Dulewicz, Higgs Slaski, 2003). These three major theoretical constructs each focused on appreciation the roles of skills, traits, and abilities in EI (Emmerling Goleman, 2003). EI has been defined as an ability (Salovey Mayer, 1990), a set of traits and abilit ies (Bar-On, 2005) or a combination of skills and personal competencies (Goleman, 1995).The ability model is based on an individuals ability to use emotions as part of the abstract thought process (Mayer et al., 2000). Mayer et al. asserted that EI depends on the ability to process emotional information and to use core abilities related to emotions. Bar-On (2005) conceptualized EI as a set of personality traits and abilities that predict emotional and social adaption within environments. Bar-On also affirmed that EI is submissive and learnable. According to Goleman (1995), EI is a set of learned skills and competencies and this conceptualization is most widely accepted outside academia. Golemans ideas have contributed to the development of leadership models that outline skills and competencies related to emotionally competent leadership (Emmerling Goleman, 2003). unconnected from that, the literature has evolved into two main categories of EI models (1) ability model and (2) mixe d models (Feyerherm Rice, 2002). The Salovey and Mayer theory is considered as an ability model of EI, while the Bar-On and Goleman theories are considered as mixed models of EI (Mayer et al., 2000). Basically, the ability model encapsulates EI as a skill and the mixed models go beyond ability by including additional personality characteristics that lead to certain behaviors.2.3.2.1 Ability ModelThe ability model of EI is the Salovey and Mayer (1990) model which officially launched the field of EI. Salovey and Mayer viewed EI as an ability that exists, interacts, and complements an individuals cognitive capabilities. Ability theory promotes the relationship between cognition and emotions based on mental abilities (Mayer, Salovey Caruso, 2004). Salovey and Mayer conceptualized EI as a set of interrelated skills composed of four secernatees of abilities, which include (1) perception and expression of emotions (2) using emotions to facilitate thought (3) fellow feeling and analyzin g emotions and (4) managing emotions (Mayer et al., 2004). The four branches can be described as follows (1) the perceiving emotions branch relates to the ability to detect emotions in oneself and in others (2) the using emotions branch relates to the ability to use emotions in cognitive activities such as problem solving (3) the understanding emotions branch relates to the ability to comprehend the complexity of emotional languages and emotional relationships and (4) the managing emotions branch relates to the ability for one to regulate emotions in oneself and in others.The ability model of EI is different from other theories because the model is the only one which utilizes an instrument intentional to measure ability (Dulewicz et al., 2003). This model operationalizes EI using ability-based measures the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence canvas (MECEIT) (Mayer, Salovey Caruso, 2002) and its predecessor, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) (Salovey May er, 1990). The ability tests measure how well people perform tasks and solve emotional problems, as opposed to other EI scales which entrust on the individuals subjective sound judgment of his or her perceived emotional skills. However, ability tests are expensive and require more resources to administer and score. MSCEIT instrument is difficult to score and lacks workplace applicability (Brackett, Rivers, Shiffman, Lerner Salovey, 2006). Consequently, self-report assessment outnumbers ability tests are more widely used in the mixed models.2.3.2.2 Mixed ModelsEI mixed theories highlighting the emotional and social functioning of individuals (Goleman, 2005 Bar-On, 2006). Therefore, Bar-On categorized his model of EI as a key of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Bar-On (2005) asserted five key competencies are associated with ESI, whereby the five domains of these mixed models are (1) intrapersonal capacity (the ability to be aware and understand ones own emotions and to expres s ones feelings and ideas) (2) interpersonal skills (the ability to be aware, understand, and appreciate others feelings as well as to build and maintain effective and satisfying relationships with others) (3) adaptability (the ability to adapt to various situations by effectively managing personal, social, and environmental changes by employing various skills such as problem solving, reality testing, and flexibility) (4) stress management strategies (the ability to manage emotions and to use those emotions to stay motivated and persistent) and (5) motivational and general humor factors (the ability to be optimistic, to enjoy oneself and others, and to maintain positive feelings) (Bar-On et al., 2000).The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), a self-report measure is considered as the most widely used measure of ESI (Bar-On, 2005). The EQ-i analyzes the concept of emotional and social functioning by measuring a persons ability to deal with daily demands and pressures. People who are taking EQ-i resolve questions based on five competencies (1) intrapersonal skills such as emotional self-awareness, self-regard, self-actualization, or independence (2) interpersonal skills such as interpersonal relationships, empathy, and social function (3) adaptability, including problem solving, flexibility, and reality testing (4) stress management, including tolerance and impulse control and (5) general mood of optimism and happiness.Goleman developed his mixed models theory of EI by mental synthesis on the work of Salovey and Mayer, in addition to other researchers in the field (Emmerling Goleman, 2003). Basically, Golemans model of EI can be grouped into personal competencies and social competencies that travel personal success in the workplace. Goleman (2005) stated that a personal competency is the ability to keep self-awareness and manage ones behaviors while a social competence is the ability to understand the behaviors of others and manage relationships effectivel y. These competencies are described in expatiate as (1) self-awareness (knowing ones internal states, preferences, resources, and intuitions) (2) self-management (managing ones internal states, impulses, and resources) (3) motivation (emotional tendencies that facilitate reaching goals) empathy (awareness of others feelings, needs, and concerns) and (4) social skills (adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others) (Goleman, 1998a).Based on the emotional competencies identified by Goleman (1998a), the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) was designed to assess EI. ECI is a 360-degree scale which gathers self, subordinate, peer, and supervisory ratings on social and emotional competencies of individuals in organizations. Subsequently, Boyatzis (2007) designed Emotional Social Competency Instrument (ESCI), a multi-rater assessment in real organizational contexts which comprised of four emotional and social competencies, which include (1) self-awareness (2) self-management (3) so cial awareness and (4) relationship management.In general, EI mixed models stress performance based on behavioral competencies and personality traits suitable for a wide range of work contexts, job roles, and job levels (Petrides, Furnham Martin, 2004 Goleman, 2005 Boyatzis, 2007). The mixed models are also comprised of other measurement instruments. For examples, measures such as the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence examination (SSEIT) (Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden Dornheim, 1998), and Wong and Laws (2002) leadership-focused measure of EI. Many studies in the literature utilize self-report measures of EI based on mixed models perspective that incorporates both disposition and ability (Chan, 2006). According to MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts (2003), mixed models scales vastly outnumber ability tests at the stage of EI development, meaning that EI is more commonly assessed as a disposition, rather than as an ability. Additionally, self-report or peer-report measures require less amount of time to complete and are most cost-effective than the ability based measure.2.3.3 Emotional Intelligence (EI) and NursingThere is a large body of knowledge related to EI exists outside nursing whereas EI theory and research within nursing is scarce and a more recent phenomenon (Akerjordet Severinsson, 2007 Smith, Profetto-McGrath Cummings, 2009). Smith et al. (2009) conducted a literature review related to EI and nursing during 1995 to 2007. Smith et al. found only 21 theoretical and 9 existential articles related to the subject and concluded that although the body of theoretical literature in nursing is growing, scientific research about EI and nursing is just beginning. Apart from that, researches that link EI and nursing are mostly correlativity designs using minute sample sizes.Akerjordet and Severinsson (2007) asserted that EI has significant implications for nurses prize of work in healthcare. Therefore some qualitative stud ies have been carried out to explore the concepts and ideas of EI in nursing (Akerjordet Severinsson, 2004 Freshwater Stickley, 2004 Kooker, Shoultz Codier, 2007 Hurley Rankin, 2008). Akerjordet and Severinsson (2004) used qualitative interviews to gain insight into mental health nurses emotional experiences in practice and sought to understand the connection between nurses articulations of emotions in practice and EI concepts. Four main themes emerged from the study, which include (1) relationship with the patient (2) the substance of supervision (3) motivation and (4) responsibility which are related to different aspects of EI. For instance, relationship with the patient which was a central research finding is linked to EI through the ability to interpret and communicate emotional information. Akerjordet and Severinsson concluded that EI implies heavy personal and interpersonal skills in nurses therapeutic use of self, critical reflection, and stimulates the search for a deep er understanding of professional nursing identity.In another study, Kooker et al. (2007) used the conceptual framework of EI to analyze nurses stories about their professional practices. The stories reflected evidence of EI competencies that could provide fresh insights into ways to keep nurses engaged in practice and to reform nurses retention and patient/client outcomes. The domains and competencies of EI identified across the stories include social awareness, the most common one, followed by social management, self-awareness, and lastly self-management which was represented less frequently than the other domains.In summary, EI concept is increasingly recognized and is fashioning an appearance in nursing journals (Cadman Brewer, 2001 Evans Allen, 2002 Freshman Rubino, 2002). The literature revealed EI is important and germane(predicate) to nursing from both an empirical and a theoretical perspective. EI influences emotions within quality of care and stress management, thus i nfluence employees retention, quality of patient care, and patient outcomes. Therefore, further research that investigates potential uses for EI theories, skills, and competencies related to nursing practice and patient care is warranted within the healthcare environment (Akerjordet Severinsson, 2007 Smith et al., 2009).2.4 Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and BurnoutEmotional Intelligence (EI) expressed in the ability to recognize, understand, control, and utilize emotions may have impact on the perceived job stress and the consequences of experienced stress. Many empirical studies have shown that the relationship exists between EI and burnout syndrome (Reilly, 1994 Duran Extremera, 2004 Gerits, Derksen, Verbruggen Katzko, 2005 Chan, 2006 Duran, Extremera, Rey, Fernandez-Berrocal Montalban, 2006 Benson, Truskett Findlay, 2007 Rimmer, Bedwell, Bay, Drachman, Torey, Foster Caruso, 2009 Brackett, Palomera, Mojsa-Kaja, Reyes Salovey, 2010). These studies also pro ved that there is a negative correlation between EI and burnout syndrome. For instance, Reilly (1994) in a study of hospital nurses identified that nurses who scored high on EI experienced fewer symptoms of burnout.Apart from that, other empirical studies have shown that the components of EI are correlated with the components of burnout (Mendes, 2002 Farmer, 2004 Palser, 2004 Potter, 2006 Froese, 2009). Farmer (2004) conducted a study to examine the relationship between EI and burnout using a sample of 169 newly graduated nursing students in practice. The results showed significant correlations which included a negative relationship between using emotions to facilitate thinking and depersonalization (DP) (r = -.240, p Palser (2004) investigated EI and burnout among ministerial workers. The researcher utilized bivariate analysis and produced two significant correlations. Firstly, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion (EE) and using emotions to facilitate thinking was presented among the one hundred one pastors sampled (r = -.25, p .05). Secondly, a positive relationship was identified between personal accomplishment (PA) and understanding emotions (r = .21, p .05). In another study, Froese (2009) examined whether the four abilities of EI predicted the components of burnout among 57 professional caregivers after accounting for the contribution of caregivers demographic characteristics, which were licensure level, age, and ethnici

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